Study of the Essential Oil, Morphological Parameters, and Growth–stage-Specific Crop Coefficients of Summer Savory (Satureja hortensis L.)

Authors

1 Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Lorestan University, Lorestan, Iran

2 Department of Crop Ecology, Faculty of Agriculture, Lorestan University, Lorestan, Iran

3 Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Lorestan University, Lorestan, Iran

Abstract

This research was conducted to study of the essential oil content, some morphological parameters, crop evapotranspiration (ETc) and crop coefficient (Kc) of Summer Savory (Satureja hortensis L.) in the west of Iran (Khorramabad region) in 2017. Weighing Lysimeters (25 cm diameter and 30 cm height) were used to measure important morphological parameters, the evapotranspiration of grass (ET0) and Summer Savory (ETc.) for the first time (Three lysimeters for each plant that was considered as replication). Irrigation was performed by the weighing method. The results showed that the essential oil content was 1.083%(w/w), and the average of plant height, stem diameters, root length, root diameter, number of leaf per plant, leaf and flower dry weight, stem dry weight were 47cm, 3.13mm, 14.5cm, 2.26mm, 630.7, 0.866 g/plant, 0.890 g/plant, respectively. Crop coefficient (Kc) can be used in predicting exact water requirement of crops. The result indicated that seasonal ET0and ETcwere884.26 mm and 776.64mm. The best polynomial curve for Kc values as a function of the days after planting (DAP) was a third polynomial (). Likewise, the growth-stage-specific crop coefficient, based on FAO approach (FAO-56 Kc) was 0.45, 0.78and 1.3. Development of the regional Kc helps in irrigation management and water resources protection.

Keywords


1.Zargari A, Medicinal Plants. 2th ed. Tehran University Press, Tehran. 1989;40-50.

2. Hadian J, Tabatabaei SMF, Naghavi MR, Jamzad Z, Ramak-Masoumi R. Genetic diversity of Iranian accessions of Satureja hortensis L. based on horticultural traits and RAPD markers. Sci Hort. 2008;115:196-202.

3. Mohtashami S, Rowshan V, Tabrizi L, Babalar M, Ghani A. Summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.) essential oil constituent oscillation at different storage conditions. Ind crop prod. 2018;111:226-231.

4. Satil F, Kaya A. Leaf anatomy and hairs of Turkish Satureja L. (Lamiaceae). Acta BiolL Cracov Bot. 2007;49:67-76.

5. Skocibusic M, Bezic N, Dunkic V. Phytochemical composition and antimicrobial activities of the Essential oils from SaturejasubspicataVis. Growing in Croatia. Food Chem. 2006;96:20-28.

6. Bakkali F, Averbeck S, Averbeck D, Idaomar M. Biological effects of essential oils. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2008;46:446-475.

7. Jenson Me, Burman RD, AllenG. Evaporation and irrigation water requirements. ASCE Manuals and Reports on Eng. Practices No.70, American Society of Civil Engineers., New York, NY. 1990;360.

8. Watson I. Burnett AD. Hydrology: An Environmental Approach: theory and applications of ground water and surface water for engineers and geologist, Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press. 1995.

9. Thornthwate CW. An approach towards a rational classification of climate. Geographic Review. 1948;38:55-94.

10. Hargreaves GH, Samani ZA. Reference crop evapotranspiration from Temperature. Appl Eng Agric. 1985;1:96-99.

11. Romualdo de Sousa Lima J, CelsoDabtas Antonio A, Soares de Souza A, Hammecker C, Gico Lima Montegro M, Alberto Brayner de Oliveira Lira C. Calibration of Hargreaves-Samani Equation for Estimating Reference Evapotranspiration in sub-Humid Region of Brazil. Agr Water Manage. 2013;5:1-5.

12. Allen RG, Pereira LS, Raes D, Smith M. Crop evapotranspiration: guidelines for computing crop water requirements. In: Proceedings of the Irrigation and Drainage Paper No.56, Food and Agricultural Organization, United Nations, Rome, Italy. 1998.

13. Howell TA, Schneider AD, Dusek DA, Marek TH, Steiner J. Calibration and scale performance of Bushland weighing Lysimeters. Ransaction of the ASAE. 1995;38:1019-1024.

14. Marek T, Piccinni G, Schneider A, Howell T, Jett M, Dusek D. Weighing Lysimeters for the determination of crop water requirements and crop coefficients. Appl Eng Agric. 2006;22:851-856.

15. Tyagi NK, Sharma DK, Luthra SK.  Determination of evapotranspiration and crop coefficient of rice and sunflower with Lysimeter. Agr Water Manage. 2000;45:41-45.

16. Pereira LS, Allen RG, Smith M, Raes D. Crop evapotranspiration estimation with FAO56: past and future. Agr Water Manage. 2015;147:4-20.

17. Rosa RD, Paredes P, Rodrigues GC, Fernando RM, Alves I, Pereir LS, Allen RG. Implementing the dual crop coefficient approach in interactive software: 2. Model testing. Agr Water Manage. 2012;103:62-77.

18. Taylor NJ, Mahohoma W, Vahrmeijer JT, GushMB, Allen RG, Annandale JG. Crop coefficient approaches based on fixed estimates of leaf resistance are not appropriate for estimating water use of citrus. Irrigation Sci. 2015;33:153-166.

19. Marin FR, Angelocci LR. Irrigation requirement and transpiration coupling to the atmosphere of a citrus orchard in Southern Brazil. Agr Water Manage. 2011;98:1091-1096.

20. Daniel SP, Nassif DSP, Marin FR, Costa LG. Evapotranspiration and Transpiration coupling to the atmosphere of sugarcane in Southern Brazil: scaling from Leaf to Field. Sugar Tech. 2014;16:250-254.

21. Mohtashami S, Rowshan V, Tabrizi L, Babalar M, Ghani A. Summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.) essential oil constituent oscillation at different storage conditions. Ind Crop Prod. 2018;111:226-231.

22. Piccinni G, Ko J, MarekT, Howell T. Determination of groeth-stage-specific crop coefficient (Kc) of maize and sorghum. Agr Water Manage. 2009;96:1698-1704.

23. Estaji A, Roosta HR, Rezaei SA, Hosseini SS, Niknam F. Morphological, physiological and phytochemical response of different Saturejahortensis L. accessions to salinity in a greenhouse experiment. Appl. Res. Med. Aromat. Plants (unpublished).

24. Mumivand H, Babalar M, Hadian J, Fakhr-TabatabaeiM. Plant growth and essential oil content and composition of Saturejahortensis L. cv. Saturn in response to calcium carbonate and nitrogen application rates. Med. Plants Res. 2011;5:1859-1866.

25. EbrahimipakNA,Ghalebi S. Determination of evapotranspiration and crop coefficient of sugar beet using Lysimeter and its comparison with experimental methods in Shahrekord. SugarBeet Res. 2014;30:23-32.

26. Reyhani N and khashei Siuki A. Lysimetric Determination of Cuminum Crop Coefficients during Different Growth Stages in Region of Birjand. Iranian Agr Sci Tech. 2015;29:1047-1056.

27. Ko J, Piccinni G, Marek T, Howell T. Determination of growth-stage-specific crop coefficient (Kc) of cotton and wheat. Agr Water Manage. 2009;96:1691-1697.

28. Wright JL.  New Evapotranspiration Crop Coefficient. Journal of the Drainage and Drainage Division. 1982;108:57-74.