Control of Tetranychus urticae Koch by Thyme, Lavender and Eucalyptus Essential Oils

Abstract

Two spotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch, is an important pests on bean in Markazi Province (center of Iran). To evaluate the bioacaricidal activity of extracts of three essential oils of thyme (Thymus vulgaris), lavender (Lavandula officinalis)  and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) against T. urticae on cherry bean (Vigna unguiculta subsp. sinensis), five different concentrations (0.5%, 1%, 2%, 3% and 4%) were used, during 2009-2011. The type of design was randomized complete block design with four replications. The results showed that lavender revealed the most acaricidal properties against T. urticae followed by thyme and eucalyptus. The LC50 values of lavender, thyme  and eucalyptus for adult mites were 0.65, 1.84 and 2.18, respectively. Our findings revealed that essential oils of thyme, lavender and eucalyptus possess acaricidal activity against two spotted spider mite on cherry bean.

Keywords


1. Afify AMR. Biological function of xenobiotics through protein binding and transportation in living cells. Int. J. Agric. Res. 2010;5:562-575.

2. Afify AMR, Mahmoud AM, El-Gammal HA, Attallah ER. Multiresidue method of analysis for determination of 150 pesticides in grapes using quick and easy method (QuEChERS) and LC-MS/MS determination. Int. J. Food Agric. Environ. 2010;8:602-606.

3. Afify AMR, El-Beltagi HS, Fayed SAS, Shalaby EA. Acaricidal activity of different extracts from Syzygium cumini L. Skeels (Pomposia) against Tetranychus urticae Koch. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed. 2011;1:359-364.

4. Aroiee H, Mosapoor S, Karimzadeh H. Control of greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) by thyme and peppermint. KMITL Sci. J. 2005;5:511-514.

5. Azzouz H, Campan ED, Cherqui A, Saguez J, Couty A, Jouanin L. Potential effects of plant protease inhibitors, oryzacystatin I and soybean Bowman-Birk inhibitor, on the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera, Braconidae). J. Insect Physiol. 2005;51:941-951.

6. Born K, Manns A, Dzeyk K, Lutz-Wahl S, Gau D, Fischer L. Evaluation of ultrasound velocity measurements for estimating protease activities using casein as substrate. Biotechnol. Lett. 2009;32:249-253.

7. Calmasur O, Aslanand I, Şahin F. Insecticidal and acaricidal effect of three Lamiaceae plant essential oils against Tetranychus urticae Koch and Bemisia tabaci Genn. Ind. Crops Prod. 2006;23:140-146.

8. Cao H, Wang YN, Liu SQ, Zhao LL, Ping L, Yu TQ. Effects of  the chloroform extracts of Kochia scoparia  to several enzyme systems  in Tetranychus viennensis. Sci. Silvae Sinicae. 2007;43:68-72.

9. Cao H, Wang YN, Liu SQ, Li XH, Shi GL.  Effects of Kochia scoparia extracts to activities of several enzymes of Tetranychus viennensis. Sci. Silvae Sinicae. 2008;42:68-72.

10. Cavalcanti SC, Niculau ES, Blank AF, Câmara CA, Araújo IN, Alves PB. Composition and acaricidal activity of Lippia sidoides essential oil against two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch). Bioresour Technol. 2010;101:829-832.

11. Duncan DB. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics. 1955;11:1-42.

12. Finney DJ. Probit analysis. 3rd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1971;589pp.

13. Gui Z, Hou C, Liu T, Qin G, Li M, Jin B. Effects of insect viruses and pesticides on glutathione-S-transferase activity and gene expression in Bombyx mori. J. Econ. Entomol. 2009;102:1591-1598.

14. Jourdie V, Alvarez N, Molina-ochoa J, Wiliams T, Bergvinson D, Benrey B. Population genetic structure of two primary parasitoids of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera), Chelonus insularis and Campoletis sonorensis (Hymenoptera): to what extent is the host plant important. Mol. Ecol. 2010;19:2168-2179.

15. Kant MR, Sabelis MW, Haring MA, Schuurink RC.  Intraspecific variation in a generalist herbivore accounts for differential induction and impact of host plant defenses. Proc. Soc. Biol. Sci. 2008;275:443-452.

16. Kawka B. Effect of lavender extracts on biology of Tetranychus urticae Koch feeding on Algerianivy (Hedera canariensis L.). Ann. Warsaw. Agric. Univ. Hortic. Landsc. Archit. 2004;25:75-79.

17. Khan M, Hossain A, Islam MS. Effect of neem leaf dust and a commercial formulation of neem compound on the longevity, fecundity and ovarian development of melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillet) and oriental fruit by Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 2007;10:3656-3661.

18. Ma ZQ, Feng J, Guo ZB, Zhang X. Effects of terpinen-4-ol on four kinds of metabolizing enzymes and polyphenol oxidase in Musca domestica. J. Zhejiang Univ. Agric. Life Sci. 2008;34:509-515.

19. Murray MB. Botanical insecticides detrrents and repellents in modern agriculture and an increasingly regulated world. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 2006;51:45-66.

20. Naher N, Islam T, Haque MM, Parween S.  Effect of native plant and IGRs on the development of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). Uni. J. Zoolog. 2006;25:19–22.

21. Pedigo LP, Buntin GD. Handbook of Sampling Methods for Arthropods in Agriculture. CRC Press, Florida, 1994; p. 714.

22. Prajapati V, Tripathi AK, Aggarwal KK, Khanuja SPS. Insecticidal, repellent and oviposition-deterrent activity of selected essential oils against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Bioresour. Technol. 2005;96:1749-1757.

23. Puinean AM, Denholm I, Millar NS, Nauen R, Williamson MS. Characterisation of imidacloprid resistance mechanisms in the brown plant hopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stal. (Hemiptera: Delphacidae). Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 2010;97:129-132.

24. Raina R, Pawan K, Verma NK, Shahid P, Prawez PS. Induction of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in chronically exposed to cypermethrin through dermal application. J. Vet. Sci. 2009;10:257-259.

25. Ren XH, Du G, Zhou J, Bing-Feng ZBF, Zhang XH. Study on the spectroscopy of two andrographolide glucoside. Chinese J. Anal. Chem. 2007;35:154-162.

26. Ren JJ, Shi GL, Gu JC, Wang JW, Zheng Y, Wang YN. Contact toxicity of crude extracts from thirty-one acaricidal plants in Northeastern China against Tetranychus cinnabarinus. J. Beijing Univ. Agric. 2009;24:17-21.

27. Sanil D, Shetty NJ. Genetic study of propoxur resistance-a carbamate insecticide in the malaria mosquito, Anopheles stephensi Liston. Malar. Res. Treat. 2010;20:1-6.

28. Sertkaya E, Kamuran KK, Soylu S. Acaricidal activities of the essential oils from several medicinal plants against the carmine spider mite (Tetranychus cinnabarinus Boisd.) (Acarina: Tetranychidae). Ind. Crops Prod. 2010;31:107-112.

29. Soliman MMM. Phytochemical and toxicological studies of Artemisia sp. L. (Compositae) essential oil against some insect pests. Arch. Phytopathol. Plant Prot. 2007;40:128-138.

30. Ugurlu S, Konus MB, Iscan M. Pyrethroid resistance and possible involvement of glutathione-S-transferases in Helicoverpa armigera from Turkey. Phytoparasitica 2007;35:23-26.

31. Villanueva RT, Walgenbach JF. Acaricidal properties of spinosad against Tetranychus urticae and Panonychus ulmi (Acari: Tetranychidae). J. Ecol. Entomol. 2006;99:843-849.

32. Wang YN, Jin YS, Shi GL, Bu CY, Zhao L, Du J. Effects of the root extracts of Stellera chamaejasmel L. on the activity of two enzymies of Tetranychus cinnabarinus. Symposium on Photonics and Optoelectronics. 2009; p.1-5.

33. Wang YN, Cheng J, Jin YS, Ren JJ, Guo HL, Zhao L. Effects of chloroform extracts from Kochia scoparia on protect enzyme activity of Tetranychus viennensis. Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering (iCBBE), 4th International Conference. 2010; p.1-4.

34. Wang YN, Bu CY, Jin YS, Ren JJ, Guo HL, Zhao L. Acaricidal activities of Wikstroemia chamaedaphne extracts against Tetranychus urticae and Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Acari: Tetranychidae). 4th International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering. 2010; p.1-5.

35. Wendel JTP, Jose CSD, Claudio AG, Adelmo CHR. Composition and acaricidal activity of the Resin’s essential oil of Protium bahianum daly against two spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae). J. Essent. Oil Res. 2007;19:379-383.

36. Xiao DS, Yang YM, Yu GY. The relationship among the organelles and the implication of yin-yang and wuxing in Chinese traditional medicine. J. Zhejiang Univ. Tradit. Chin. Med. 2008;32:214-219.