Diurnal Variations of Gas Exchange Characteristics in Leaves of Anise Hyssop (Agastache foeniculum) under Normal, Drought Stress and Recovery Conditions

Abstract

 Net photosynthesis rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration rate (E) of anise hyssop were measured during the four cloudless days, in reference to diurnal fluctuations of leaf temperature (Tleaf), leaf vapor pressure deficit (VPD leaf) and photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) in well watered (WW), stressed (S) and recovered (R) plants. An analysis of measured data showed that there was an evident midday depression of photosynthesis at stress and recovered plants. The highest of net photosynthesis was observed at 11:00, 8:00 and 7:00 a.m for well watered, stressed and recovered plants, respectively. Net photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate were higher in well watered than stressed plants while leaf vapor pressure deficit and leaf temperature was lower in well watered plants. Stomatal conductance and transpiration were also positively correlated with leaf vapor pressure deficit and net photosynthesis rate in well watered plants while correlation between these parameters was not significant in stressed plants. In total, the midday depression of net photosynthesis might be due to stomatal and non-stomatal limitations.

Keywords


1. Khalid Kh A. Influence of water stress on growth, essential oil, and chemical composition of herbs (Ocimum sp.). Int Agrophys. 2006;20:289-296.

2. Omidbaigi R, Sefikon F. Essential oil composition of Agastache foeniculum cultivated in Iran. J Essent Oil Res. 2003;15:52-53.

3. Fuentes-Granados RG. Genetic studies of Agastache. Ph.D. Thesis, Iowa State University. Iowa, USA. 1997.

4. Kattenburg A, Giorgi F, Grassil H, Meehl GA, Mitchell JFB, Stouffer RJ, Tokioka T, Weaver AJ, Wigley TML. Climate models projections of future climate. In: Houghton, JT, Meira Filho, LG, Callander, BA. (Eds.), Climate change, the science of climate change. Contribution working group I of to the second assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, 1996, Cambridge, UK, pp. 285–357.

5. Aliabadi FH, Valadabadi SAR, Daneshian J, Shiranirad AH, Khalvati MA. Medicinal and aromatic plants farming under drought conditions. J Hort Forest. 2009;1:86-92. 

6. Athar HR, Ashraf M. Photosynthesis under Drought Stress. In: Handbook of photosynthesis, Pessarakli, M. (2nd ed), CRC Press, 2005, Chapter 41.

7. Wartinger A, Heilmeier H, Hartung W, Schulze ED. Daily and seasonal courses of leaf conductance and abscisic acid in the xylem sap of almond trees (Prunus dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb) under desert conditions. New Phytol. 1990;116,581-587.

8. Chaves MM, Pereira JS, Maroco J, Rodrigues ML, Ricardo CPP, Osorio ML, Carvalho I, Fariaand T, Pinheiro C. How plants cope with water stress in the field? Photosynthesis and growth. Ann Bot. 2002;89:907–916.

9. Kramer PJ, Boyer JS. Water relations of plants and soils. Academic Press, San Diego, 1995.

10. Assman, SM, Shimazaki K. The multisensory guard cell. Stomatal responses to blue light and abscisic acid. Plant Physiol. 1999;119:809–815.

11. Bertamini M, Nedunchezhian N. Photoinhibition and recovery of photosystem 2 in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves grown under field conditions. Photosynthetica 2004;41:611-617.

12. Correia MJ, Chaves M M, Pereira JS. Afternoon depression in photosynthesis in grapevine leaves: evidence for a high light stress effect.  J Exp Bot. 1990;41:417-426.

13. Pathre U, Sinha  AK,  Shirke PA, Sane PV. Factors determining the midday depression of photosynthesis in trees under monsoon climate. Trees 1998;12:472-481.

14. Zhou HY, Wang JH, Fang XS, Xue Y F, Zhu HF, Dong Q T, Cai AM, Fu ZW, Wang L. Relationship between photosynthetic characteristics and environmental factors in leaves of Pueraria lobata. Chin J Chin Mater Med. 2008;33:2595-2598.

15. Chaumont M, Morot-Gaudry JF, Foyer CH. Seasonal and diurnal changes in photosynthesis and carbon partitioning in Vitis vinifera leaves in vines with and without fruit. J Exp Bot. 1994;45:1235-1243.

16. Chaves MM, Maroco JP, Pereira JS. Understanding plant response to drought-from genes to the whole plant. Funct Plant Biol. 2003; 30:239-264.

17. Izanloo A, Condon, AG, Langridge, P, Tester, M, Schnurbusch, T. Different mechanisms of adaptation to cyclic water stress in two South Australian bread wheat cultivars. J Exp Bot. 2008;59:3327-3346.

18. Xu ZZ, Zhou GS, Shimizu H. Are plant growth and photosynthesis limited by pre-drought following rewatering in grass? J Exp Bot. 2009;60:3737-3749.

19. Li WD, Biswas DK, Xu H, Xu CQ, Wang XZ, Liu JK, Jiang GM. Photosynthetic responses to chromosome doubling in relation to leaf anatomy in Lonicera japonica subjected to water stress. Funct Plant Biol. 2009;36:783-792.

20. Letchamo W, XU HL, Gosselin A. Variations in photosynthesis and essential oil in thyme. J Plant Physiol. 1995;147:29-37.

21. Luo MH, Hu JY, Wu QG, Yang JT, Su ZX. Effects of drought stress on leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of Salvia miltiorrhiza. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xuebao. 2010;21:619-623.

22. Cai H, Biswas DK, Shang AQ, Zhao LJ, Li WD. Photosynthetic response to water stress and changes in metabolites in Jasminum sambac, Photosynthetica 2007;45:503-509.

23. Niu G, Rodriguez DS. Impact of drought and temperature on growth and leaf gas exchange of six bedding plant species under greenhouse conditions. Hort Sci. 2006;41:1408-1411.

24. Lenzi A, Lambros  P, Tommaso  M, Piero L, Romano T. Response to water stress of some oleander cultivars suitable for pot plant production. Scientia Hort.. 2009;122:426–431.

25. Zhang XH, Lang DY, Zhang EH, Bai CC, Wang HZ. Diurnal changes in photosynthesis and antioxidants of Angelica sinensis as influenced by cropping systems. Photosynthetica 2013;51:252-258.

26. Omidbaigi R, Sefikon F. Effect of sowing time on the essential oil content and composition of Agastache foeniculum. J Essent Oil Bear Plants. 2004;7:190-194.

27. Omidbaigi R, MahmoodiM. Effect of irrigation regimes on the essential oil content and composition of Agastache foeniculum. J Essent Oil Bear Plants. 2010;13:59-65.

28. Omidbaigi R, Kabudani M, Khoorang M. Nitrogen fertilizer affecting herb dry yield, essential oil content and compositions of Agastache foeniculum. J Essent Oil Bear Plants. 2008;11:261-266.

29. Mallavarapu GR, Kulkarni RN, Baskaran K, Ramesh S. The essential oil composition of anise hyssop grown in India. Flavour Fragr J. 2004;19:351–353.

30. Zhang YX, Wu JC, Cao FL, Zhang YP. Effects of water stress on photosynthetic activity, dry mass partitioning and some associated metabolic changes in four provenances of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss). Photosynthetica 2010;48:361-369.

 

101

 
31. Clifford SC, Kadzere I, Jones HG, Jackson JE. Field comparisons of photosynthesis and leaf conductance in Ziziphus mauritiana and other fruit tree species in Zimbabwe. Trees 1997;11:449-455.

32. Zhang ZA, Yang F, Chen ZY, Xu KZ. Relationship between diurnal changes of net photosynthetic rate and environmental factors in leaves of Zizania latifolia. Sci Agric Sin. 2006;39:502–509.

33. Bernacchi CJ, Singsaas EL, Pimentel C, Portis AR, Long SP. Improved temperature response functions for models of Rubisco-limited photosynthesis. Plant Cell Environ. 2001;24:253–259.

34. Han Z, Shao X, Wang Y, Li Y, Han M, Yang L. Growth characteristics and physiological and photosynthetic abilities of Saposhnikovia divaricata in response to water supply. J Food Agric Environ. 2011;9:578-582.

35. Yu RHZhao YJXu KZZhang M ShZhang ZA, Chen ZY. Diurnal changes of photosynthesis in Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolium under different environmental conditions. J South China Agric Univ. 2009;30:7-11.

36. Xu K, Guo YY, Wang XF. Studies on the photosynthetic characteristics of ginger, Acta Hort. 2004;629:347-353.

37. Xu DQ, Zhang YZ, Zhang RX. Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in plants. Plant Physiol Commun. 1992;28:237-243.

38. Delfine S, Loreto F, Pinelli P, Tognetti R, Alvino A. Isoprenoids content and photosynthetic limitations in rosemary and spearmint plants under water stress. Agric Ecosyst Environ. 2005;106:243–252.

39. Galmes J, Medrano H, Flexas J. Photosynthetic limitations in response to water stress and recovery in Mediterranean plants with different growth forms. New phytologist. 2007;175:81–93.

40. Ignace DD, Huxman TE, Weltzin JF, Williams DG.  Leaf gas exchange and water status responses of a native and non-native grass to precipitation across contrasting soil surfaces in the Sonoran Desert. Oecologia 2007;152:401–413.

41. Brodribb TJ, Cochard H. Hydraulic failure defines the recovery and point of death in water-stressed conifers. Plant Physiol. 2009;149:575–584.

42. Souza RP, Machado EC, Silva JAB, Lagôa AMMA, Silveira JAG. Photosynthetic gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and some associated metabolic changes in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) during water stress and recovery. Environ Exp Bot. 2004;51:45-56.

43. Miyashita K, Tanakamaru S, Maitani T, Kimura K. Recovery responses of photosynthesis, transpiration, and stomatal conductance in kidney bean following drought stress. Environ Exp Bot. 2005;53:205-214.