Essential oil Analysis of Fresh Aerial part of Iranian Ocimum sanctum L. by Hydro & Steam Distillation


1 Pharmaceutical Science Branch , Islamic Azad University, Tehran , Iran

2 Department of chemistry, Faculty of Science, Islamic Azad University South Tehran branch, Tehran ,Iran

3 Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Tehran, Iran


The genus Ocimum L. belonging to family of Lamiaceae is widely distributed in Iran, Ocimum sanctum L. is described in many medicinal properties and a wide therapeutic range. It is used specially in the management of cough, ashtma, fever and common cold. In this research, samples were collected from Shahr-e-Rey, on August 2013, then essential oils were extracted by  hydro-distillation and steam distillation methods, and their chemical composition were investigated by GC/MS. Main components obtained from hydro-distillation were  methyl chavicol (26.86%) , linalool (17.76%), epi- α-cadinol (13.12%) in flowers and methyl chavicol (27.64%) , epi- α-cadinol (11.5%) in leaves, and also main components obtained from steam distillation were methyl chavicol (25.2%) , linalool (17.65%), germacrene D (6.87%) in flowers and  methyl chavicol (38.96%), linalool (12.13%) in leaves, respectively. Methyl chavicol was the main constituent in all essential oils.


1. Akerele O. Medicinal plants in traditional  medicine.Academic press, London.1990.

2. Jaimand K, Rezaee MB. Essential oils, distillation apparatuses, Test Methods of Essential oils and Retention Indices in Essential oil Analysis. Iranian society of Medicinal Plants.2006.

4. Mukherjee PK, Maiti K, Mukherjee K Houghton, Leads from Indian medicinal plants with hypoglycemic potentials. Journal of  Ethnopharmacology. 2006;106:1-28.

5. Jaggi RK, Madaan R, Singh B, Anticonvulsant potential of holy basil Ocimum sanctum L.and its cultures., Indian Journal ExpBiol. 2003;11:1329-1333.

6. Rajeshwari. S, Ocimum sanctum. The Indian home remedy. In: Current Medical Scene, ( Cipla Ltd., Bombay Central, Bombay).1992.

7. Khanna S, Gupta SR, Grover SK, Action of Ocimum sanctum (tulsi) in mice :possible mechanism involved, Indian Journal  Experimental Biology;1986; 24: 302-304.

8. Bhargava KP, Singh N, Anti-stress activity of Ocimum sanctum Linn, Indian Jouranl Medical Research. 1981;73: 443-451.

9. Ray A. Recent trends in stress research: Focus on adaptogenesis. Proc. XXXVIIIth Conference of Indian Pharmacological Society held at Punjabi University, Patiala. 1995; Nov. 23-26, p.68.

10. Sarkar A, Pandey DN, Pant MC, Evaluation of anti-microbial activity of Ocimum sanctum methanolic extract, Indian Journal PhysiologyPharmacology.1994; 38:311-312.

11. Sethi J, Sood S, Seth S, Thakur A. Protective effect of tulsi (Ocimum sanctum ) on lipid peroxidation in stress induced by anemic hypoxia in rabbits , Indian Journal Physiology Pharmacology. 2003; 47:115-119.

12. Rama M   ,  SyamaSundar B.

Phytochemical constituent and antioxidant activity of extract from the leaves of Ocimum sanctum green and purple.International J Chem & Pharmaceu Res. 2013;2:2319-1716.

13. Da -Silva F, Santos RHS, Diniz ER, Barbosa LCA, Casali VWD, De-Lima RR. Content and composition of basil essential oil at two different hours in the day and two seasons. Revista Brasileira de Plants Medicinas. 2003;6:33-38.

14. Sajjadi SE. Analysis of the essential oils of two cultivated basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) from Iran. Daru.2006;14:128-130.

15. Rubiolo P, Sgorbini B, Liberto E, Cordero C, Bicchi C. Essential oils and Volatile oils ; sample preparation and analysis. Flavour Fragr.2012; 25:282-290.

16.Graca Miguel M. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Essential Oils: A Short Review J Mol. 2010;15:9252-9287.

17. Alma MH, Nitz S, Kollmannsberger H ,Digrak M, efe FT, Yilmaz N. Chemical composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the essential oils from the gum of Turkish Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.). J Agric Food chem. 2004;52:3911-3914.

18. Asatil F, Azcan N, Baser KHC. Fatty acid composition of Pistachio nuts in Turkey. Chem Nat comput. 2003;39:322-324.

19. Zolfagari M, Nazeri V, Sefidkon F, Rejali F. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on plant growth and essential oil content and composition  of Ocimum basilicum L. I J P P.2013;3:643-650.

20. Bowles EJ. The chemistry of Aromatherapeuticoils; 3rd ;Edition Amazon Press, 2004.

21. Koba K, Wiyaopoutouli P, Raynaud Ch, Sanda K. Antifungal Activity of the essential oils from
Ocimum gratissimum L Grown in Togo. J Sci Res. 2009;1:164-171.

22. Rangasamy O, FawziMahmoodally M, Subratty AH, Gurib-fakim A. Essential oil composition, Antimicrobial Potential, phytochemical profile and Toxicity of eesential oils and crude extracts of sweet Basil prior and after flowering. I J Bio Well ind.  2012;1:85-89.

23. Hadjkhelifa L, Brada M, Brahmi ,F,Achour ,D, Fauconnier,M.L, and Lognay ,G, Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oil of Ocimum basilicum L  leaves from the northern Region of Algeria  Topcls. J Herbal Med. 2012;1:53-58 .

24. Ismail M. Central Properties and Chemical Composition of Ocimum basilicum L. Essential oil. Ph Bio. 2006;44:619-626 .

25. Adams RP. Identification of essential oils by Ion trap Mass Spectroscopy. Academic Press, San Diego, CA1989.