Effect of Chemical and Biological Phosphorus on the Yield of Summer Savory (Satureja hortensis L.)

Authors

1 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

2 Group of Medicinal Plants, Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

3 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

Abstract

To survey the effects of chemical and biological phosphorus on the yield and essential oil of Satureja hortensis L. as an important medicinal plant, factorial experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replicates at Research Station of Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University in 2011. The treatments were chemical phosphorus fertilizer with four levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg/ha P as triple supper phosphate) and biological phosphorus fertilizer with four levels (0, 100, 200 and 300 g/ha Pseudomonas putida Strain P13 and Bacillus lentus Strain P5). The results of ANOVA showed the significant interaction effect between chemical and biological phosphorus on the yield of fresh weight, biological yield, stem dry weight, and the yield of drug and essential oil. There was non-significant effect of chemical and biological phosphorus on the essential oil percent, harvest index of drug and harvest index of essential oil. The highest amounts of total fresh weight (23327 kg/ha), biological yield (5282 kg/ha), stem dry weight (2523 kg/ha) and yield of drug (2759 kg/ha) and essential oil (79 kg/ha) were obtained from 200 g/ha of biological phosphorus without chemical fertilizer. The minimum amounts of total fresh weight, biological yield, stem dry weight, the yield of drug and essential oil were observed in higher than 200 g/ha of biological phosphorus.

Keywords


1. Hadian J, Tabatabaei SMF, Naghavi MR, Jamzad Z, Ramak-Masoumi T. Genetic diversity of Iranian accessions of Satureja hortensis L. based on horticultural traits and RAPD markers. Sci Hort. 2008;115:196-202.

2. Rodriguez H, Feraga R. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria and their role in plant growth promotion. Biotechnol Adv. 1999;17:319-339.

3. Rashid M, Khalil S, Ayub N, Alam S, Latif F. Organic acids production and phosphate solubilization by phosphate solubilizing microorganism (PSM) under in vitro conditions. Pak J Biol Sci. 2004;7:187-196.

4. Hajhashemi V, Sadraei H, Ghannadi AR, Mohseni M. Antispasmodic and anti-diarrhoeal effect of Satureja hortensis L. essential oil. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002;71:187-192.

5. Krishna KR. Soil Fertility and Crop Production, Science Publishers, USA, 2002.

6. Serraj R, Sinclair TR. Soybean cultivar variability for nodule formation and growth under drought. Plant Soil. 1998;202:159-166.

7. Chabot R, Antoun H, Cescas MP. Growth promotion of maize and lettuce by phosphate-solubilizing Rhizobium legumeinosarum biovar phaseoli. Plant Soil. 1996;184:311-321.

8. Madani H. The effects of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) on Potato yield at Iran environment. 18th World Congress of Soil Science, 2006, pp. 25-162.

9. Saedi Farkoosh S, Ardakani MR, Rejali F, Darzi MT, Faregh AH. Effect of mycorrhizal symbiosis and Bacillus coagolance on qualitative and quantitative traits of Matricaria chamomilla under different levels of phosphorus. Middle-East J Sci Res. 2011;8:01-09.

10. Uslu C, Murat Karasen R, Sahin F, Taysi S, Akcay F. Effects of aqueous extracts of Satureja hortensis L. on rhinosinusitis treatment in rabbit. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;88:225-228.

11. Sefidkon F, Jamzad Z, Mirza M. Chemical variation in the essential oil of Satureja sahendica from Iran. Food Chem. 2004;88:325-328.

12. Kannaiyan S. Biotechnology of Biofertilizers, Springer Science, 2002.

13. Rechinger KH. Satureja. Flora Desiranischen Hoclandes and der Umrahmenden Gebirge. Academic publishing Druku Antalt Graz, Australia. 1982;150:495-504.

14. Kaur R, Macloed J, Foley W, Nayudu M. Gluconic acid: An antifungal agent produced by Pseudomonas species in biological control of take-all. Phytochem. 2006;67:595-604.

15. Kizilkaya R. Yield response and nitrogen concentrations of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) inoculated with Azotobacter chroococcum strains. Ecol Eng.2008;33:150-156.

16. Tilak KVBR, Ranganayaki N, Pal KK, De R, Saxena RK, Shekhar Nautiyal C, Mittal S, Tripathi AK, Johri BN. Diversity of plant growth and soil health supporting bacteria. Curr Sci. 2005;98:136-150.

17. Gyaneshwar P, Naresh Kumar G, Parekh LJ, Poole PS. Role of soil microorganisms in improving P nutrition of plants. Plant Soil. 2002;245:83-93.

18. Hao X, Cho CM, Racz GJ, Chang C. Chemical retardation of phosphate diffusion in an acid soil as

affected by liming. Nutr Cycl Agroecosys. 2002;64:213-224.

19. Khan KS, Joergensen RG. Changes in microbial biomass and P fractions in biogenic household waste compost amended with inorganic P fertilizers. Bioresource Technol. 2009;100:303-309.

20. Koocheki A, Tabrizi L, Ghorbani R. Effect of biofertilizers on agronomic and quality criteria of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis). Iran J Field Crop Res. 2008;6:127-137. (In Persian with English Summary).

21. Mehrvarz S, Chaichi MR, Alikhani HS. Effects of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms and phosphorus chemical fertilizer on yield and yield components of barely (Hordeum vulgare L.). Am-Eurasian J Agric Environ Sci. 2008;3:822-828.

22. Yazdani M Bahmanyar MA, Pirdashti H, Esmaili MA. Effect of phosphate solubilization microorganisms (PSM) and plant growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) on yield and yield components of Corn (Zea mays L.). World Acad Sci Eng Technol. 2009;25:90-92.

23. Yousefi AA, Khavazi K, Moezi AA, Rejali F, Nadian HA. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi impacts on inorganic phosphorus fractions and wheat growth. World Appl Sci J. 2011;15:1310-1318.

24. Madani H, Kelarestaghi KB, Malboobi MS. Comparison of biological and chemical phosphorus fertilizers on rapeseed yield in Iran. The Proceedings of the International Plant Nutrition Colloquium XVI.,pp. 7-20, 2009.

25. Darzi MT, HajSeyedhadi M, Rejali F. Effects of the application of vermicompost and phosphate solubilizing bacterium on the morphological traits and seed yield of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.). J Med Plants Res. 2012;6:215-219.

26. Mashmoul A, Pirzad A, Hassani A, Azimi J. Effect of chemical and biological phosphorus on the some morphological characters of Summer Savory (Satureja hortensis). Int J Agron Plant Prod. 2013;4:184-188.