Response of Seed Yield and Essential oil of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L.) Affected as Foliar Spraying of Nano-fertilizers


1 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

2 Department of Medicinal Plants, Shahid Bakeri Higher Education Center of Miandoab, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran


In order to investigate the effect of micronutrients foliar application on seed yield and essential oil of black cumin, a field experiment was conducted based on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications at the farmlocated in Naqadeh city, West Azerbaijan province, Iran, during 2015-2016 growing season. Treatments were separate application of Nano-Iron, Nano-Zinc and Nano-Manganese and double and triple combined treatment of them (Fe+Mn, Fe+Zn, Zn+Mn, Fe+Zn+Mn) and control. Treatments were applied at 2 g/L twice at stem elongation and early flowering stages. Different traits such as plant height, number of follicle per plant, number seed per follicle, 1000- seed weight, biological yield, seed yield, essential oil percentage and yield were measured. The results showed that foliar application of micronutrients had a significant effect on all studied traits and improved yield components and essential oil yield as compared to control. Yield components, seed yield, essential oil percentage and essential oil yield were enhanced by foliar application compared with control. Therefore, combined usage of micronutrients (Nano-Fe+ Nano-Zn+ Nano-Mn) showed the greatest increase in studied traits than their individual usage. The highest seed yield (706.67 kg.ha-1) and essential oil yield (8.66%) were obtained from Fe+Zn+Mn treatment. In general, the results of the present study revealed that the foliar spraying of Nano-micronutrients plays a remarkable role in improving the quantitative and qualitative yield of black cumin as a medicinal plant.


1. Khalid AK, Shedeed MR. GC-MS analyses of black cumin essential oil produces with sodium chloride. Int Food Res J. 2016;23:832-836.

2. Ramadan MF. Nutritional value, functional properties and nutraceutical applications of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.): an overview. Int J Food Sci & Tech. 2007;42:1208-1218.

3. Bagheri Khoulenjani M, Salamati MS. Morphological reaction and yield of Nigella sativa L. to Fe and Zn. African J Agric Res. 2011;7:2359-2362.

4. Heidari M, Galavi M, Hassani M. Effect of sulfur and iron fertilizers on yield, yield components and nutrient uptake in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) under water stress. African J Biotech. 2011;10:8695-8702.

5. Baruah S, Dutta J. Nanotechnology applications in sensing and pollution degradation in agriculture. Environmental Chemistry Letters. 2009;7:191-204.

6. Veronica N, Tulasi Guru, Ramesh Thatikunta, Narender Reddy S. Role of Nano fertilizers in agricultural farming. Inter J Environ Sci & Tech. 2015;1:1-3.

7. Kuzhandaivel H, Venkatesan S. Impact of iron toxicity on certain enzymes and biochemical parameters of tea. Asian J Biochem. 2011;6:223-233.

8. Kerkeb L, Connolly E. Iron transport and metabolism in plants. Genetic Engineering. 2006;27:119-140.

9. Santos D, Duarte B, Caçador I. Unveiling Zn hyperaccumulation in Juncus acutus: implications on the electronic energy fluxes and on oxidative stress with emphasis on non-functional Zn-chlorophylls. J Photochem & Photo. 2014;140:228-239.

10. Monnet F, Vaillant N, Vernay P, Coudret A, Sallanon H, Hitmi A. Relationship between PSII activity, CO2 fixation, and Zn, Mn and Mg contents of Lolium perenne under zinc stress. JPlant Physiol. 2001;158:1137-1144.

11. Attia KK. Response of two peanut varieties to phosphorus fertilization and foliar application of certain micronutrients under sandy calcareous soil conditions. Assiut J Agric Sci. 2004;35:253-267.

12. Nasiri Y, Zehtab-salmasi S, Nasrullahzadeh S, Najafi N, Ghassemi-Golezani K. Effects of foliar application of micronutrients (Fe and Zn) on flower yield and essential oil of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.). J Med Plants Res. 2010;4:1733-1737.

13. Bakry BA, Tawfik MM, Mekki BB, Zeidan MS. Yield and yield components of three flax cultivars (Linum usitatissimum L.) in response to foliar application with Zn, Mn and Fe under newly reclaimed sandy soil conditions. American-Eurasian J Agric & Environ Sci. 2012;12:1075-1080.

14. Ghasemian V, Ghalavand A, Soroosh zadeh A, Pirzad A. The effect of iron, zinc and manganese on Quality and quantity of soybean seed. J phytology. 2010;2:73-79.

15. Clevenger JF. Apparatus for determination of volatile oils. J American Pharmacists Association. 1928;17:345.

16. Singh M, Singh UB, Ram M, Yadav A, Chanotiya CS. Biomass yield, essential oil yield and quality of geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L. Her.) as influenced by intercropping with garlic (Allium sativum L.) under subtropical and temperate climate of India. Industrial Crops and Products. 2013;46:234-237.

17. Keshavarz N, Baghayi N, Ghafari M. Effect of foliar applications of chelated iron nano-organic fertilizer on quantitative and qualitative properties of dry land wheat. First National Conference on Modern opics in Agriculture. Saveh Islamic Azad University. 2010.

18. Safaei S, Azizi M, Davarynejad GH, Aroiee H. The   Effect   of Foliar Application   of   Humic   Acid   and   Nano fertilizer (Pharmks) on Yield and Yield Components of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L.). J Med Plants & By-products. 2014;2:133-140.

19. Nazaran MH, Khalaj H, Labafi MR, Shamsabadi M, Razazi A. Investigation of iron chelatednano-organic fertilizer spraying time effect on quantitative and qualitative dryl and wheat. Second National Conference on Application of Nanotechnology in Agriculture. Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Iran, Karaj, 15th to 16th October. 2009.

20. Malakouti MJ. The effect of micronutrients in ensuring efficient use of macronutrients. Turkish J Agric & Forestry. 2008;32:215-220.

21. Heidarian AR, Kord H, Mostafavi KH, Lak AP, Amini Mashhadi F. Investigating Fe and Zn foliar application on yield and its components of soybean (Glycine max L.) at different growth stages. J Agric Biotech & Sustainable Development. 2011;3:189 -197.

22. Ravi S, Channal HT, Hebsur NS, Patil BN, Dharmatti PR. Effect of sulphur, zinc and iron nutrition on growth, yield, nutrient uptake and quality of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Karnataka J Agric Sci. 2008;32:382-385.

23. Razazi A, Labafi MR, Mehrabi Z, Nazaran MH, Khalaj H. Effect of nano-iron chelated fertilizer on yield of saffron. Eleventh Congress of Agronomy, Iran, Tehran, Martyr Beheshti University, 2th to 4th of August. 2010.

24. Naga Sivaiah K, Swain SK, Raju B, Sandeep Varma V. Effect of micronutrients foliar application on seed yield in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentummill). International J Plant & Animal Sci. 2013;1: 070-072.

25. Naeini MR, Esnaashari M, Khoshgoftarmanesh AH, Cheraghi H, Hatami A, Mirzapour MH. The Effect of Zinc Nutrition on Two Olive (Olea europaea L.) Cultivars Components and Alleviate Oxidative Damage in Salinity Conditions. J Med Plants & By-products. 2016;1:23-31.

27. Chen Y, Clapp CE, Magen H.  Mechanisms of plant growth stimulation by humic substances:  The role of organo-iron complexes. Soil Sci & Plant Nutrition. 2004;50:1089-1095.

28. Kalidasu G, Sarada C, Yellamanda-Reddy T. Influence of micronutrients on growth and yield of coriander (Coriandrum sativum) in rainfed Vertisols. J Spieces & Aromatic Crops. 2008;17:187-189.

29. Said-Al Ahl HAH, Omer EA. Effect of spraying with zinc and / or iron on growth and chemical composition of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) harvested at three stages of development. J Med Food Plants. 2009;1:30-46.

30. Ghorbanpour M, Asgari Lajayer H, Hadian J. Influence of Copper and Zinc on Growth, Metal Accumulation and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils in Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). J Med Plants. 2016;15:59.

31. Akhtar N, Abdul MSM, Akhter H, Katrun NM. Effect of planting time and micronutrient as zinc chloride on the growth, yield and oil content of Mentha piperita. Bangladesh J Sci & Industrial Res. 2009;44:125-130.

32. Misra A, Dwivedi S, Srivastava AK, Tewari DK, Khan A, Kumar R. Low iron stress nutrition for evaluation of Fe-efficient genotype physiology, photosynthesis, and essential monoterpene oil(s) yield of Ocimum sanctum. Photosyntetica. 2006;44:474-477.