Investigation of Phytochemical and Antioxidant Capacity of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) Against Gout

Authors

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Golestan, Shahid Beheshti Ave., Gorgan, Iran

Abstract

Fennel, Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Apiaceae) is an aromatic plant, with medicinal and culinary applications, widely naturalized worldwide, especially near the see coasts and riversides. Fennel has long been used in Iran as a traditional remedy against gout. The objective of our study was to uncover the scientific basis of this traditional gout therapy. Different plant parts were extracted by methanol and used in phytochemical assessment and examined for possible inhibitory effects on xanthine oxidase -the main enzyme responsible for uric acid accumulation in blood. FRAP and β-carotene bleaching assays, total anthocyanin, carotenoids, soluble sugars, phenolics and flavonoids content were measured spectrophotometrically, while caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid and quercitin contents were measured by HPLC. The experiments were performed using a 3-stage nested statistical design with three biological replications. Results showed that the flower extract exhibited the most xanthine oxidase inhibitory effect (80% of Allopurinol), the highest amounts of total phenol, flavonoid and cafeic acid (53.55, 7.71 and 0.049 mg gdw-1,respectively), as well as significant antioxidant activity in scavenging free radicals. These results suggest that flower extract of fennel is a natural source of valuable compounds against xanthine oxidase activity, with potential therapeutic applications in human gout treatment.

Keywords


1. Poom SH, Hall HA, Zimmermann B. Approach to the treatment of hyperuricemia. Medicine & Health. 2009;92:359.
2. Grassi D, Ferri L, Desideri G, Di Giosia P, Cheli P, Del Pinto R, Properzi G, Ferri C. Chronic hyperuricemia, uric acid deposit and cardiovascular risk. Curr. Pharma. Design. 2013;19:2432-2438.
3. Collin A. Oxidative DNA damage, antioxidants and cancer. Bio-Essays. 1999;21:238-246.
4. Nose K. Role of reactive oxygen species in the regulation of physiological functions. Biological and pharmaceutical bulletin. 2000;23:897-903.
5. Kuhn M, Letunic I, Jensen LJ, Bork P. The SIDER database of drugs and side effects, Nucl. Acids Res. 2016;44:1075-1079.
6. Mikaili P, Shayegh J, Asghari MH, Sarahroodi S, Sharifi M. Currently used traditional phytomedicines with hot nature in Iran. Annals Biol Res. 2011;2:56-68.
7. Lim TK. Foeniculum vulgare, in edible medicinal and non-medicinal plants. Springer Netherlands. 2013.
8. Senatore F, Oliviero F, Scandolera E, Taglialatela-Scafati O, Roscigno G, Zaccardelli M, De Falco E. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of anethole-rich oil from leaves of selected varieties of fennel [Foeniculum vulgare Mill. ssp. vulgare var. azoricum (Mill.) Thell]. Fitoterapia. 2013;90:214-219.

9. Badgujar SB, Patel VV, and Bandivdekar AT. Foeniculum vulgare Mill: A Review of Its Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Contemporary Application, and Toxicology. Bio Med Res Inter. 2014;42674-42706.

10. Ozbek H, Ugras S, Dulger H, Bayram I, Tuncer I, Ozturk G, Ozturk A. Hepatoprotective effect of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil. Fitoterapia. 2003;74:317-319.

11. Akram M, Usmanghani K, Ahmed I, Azhar I, Hamid A. Comprehensive review on therapeutic strategies of gouty arthritis. Pakistan J Phar Sci. 2014;27:1575-1582.

12. Grover S, Malik C, Hora A, Kushwaha HB. Botany, cultivation, chemical constituents and genetic diversity in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill): A review. Int J Life Sci. 2013;2:128-139.

13. Noro T, Oda Y, Miyase T, Ueno A, Fukushima S. Inhibitor of xanthine oxidase from flowers and buds of Daphne genkwa. Chem Phar Bulletin. 1983;31:3984-3987.

14. Teimoori-Boghsani Y, Bagherieh-Najjar MB, Mianabadi M, Mohseni M. Summer savory (Satureja hortensis) extract inhibits xanthine oxidase. J Med Plants & By-Products. 2015;4:25-30.

15. Benzene I, Strain J. Ferric reducing / antioxidant power assay: direct measure of total antioxidant activity of biological fluids and modified version for simultaneous of total antioxidant power and ascorbic acid concentration. Methods Enzymol. 1999;299:15-27.

16. Mita S, Murano N, Akaike M, Nakamura K. Mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana with pleiotropic effects on the expression of the gene for beta-amylase and on the accumulation of anthocyanin that are inducible by sugars. Plant J. 1997;11:841-851.

17. Lichtenthaler H. Chlorophylls and carotenoids; pigments of photosynthetic membranes. Method Enzyme. 1987;148:350-382.

18. Kochert A. Carbohydrate determination by phenol-sulfuric acid method. In: J.A. Hellebust and J.S. Craige, Editors, Handbook of physiology and biochemical methods. Cambridge University Press, London. 1978.

19. Meda A, Lamien C, Romito M, Millogo J, Nacoulma O. Determination of the total phenolic, flavonoid and pralin contents in Burkina Fasan honey, as well as their scavenging activity. Food Chem. 2005;91:571-577.

20. Chang C, Yang M, Wen H, Chern J. Estimation of total flavonoid content in propolis by two complementary colorimetric methods. J Food Drug Analysis. 2002;10:178-182.

21. Owen R, Mier A, Giacosa W, Hull B, Spiegelhalder, Bartsch H. Phenolic compounds and squalene in olive oils: the concentration and antioxidant potential of total phenols, simple phenols, secoiridoids, lignansand squalene. Food Chem. Toxic. 2000;38:647-659.

22. Amat N, Umar A, Hoxur P, Anaydulla M, Imam G, Aziz R, Upur H, Kijjoa A, Moore N. Traditional Uighur Medicine Karapxa decoction, inhibits liver xanthine oxidase and reduces serum uric acid concentrations in hyperuricemic mice and scavenges free radicals in vitro. BMC Com. & Alt. Med. 2015;15:131-139.

23. Balasundram N, Sundram K, Samman S. Phenolic compounds in plants and agri-industrial by-products: Antioxidant activity, occurrence, and potential uses. Food Chem. 2006;99:191-203.

24. Pietta PG. Flavonoids as antioxidants. J Nat Prod. 2000;63:1035-1042.

25. De Marino S, Gala F, Borbone N, Zollo F, Vitalini S, Visioli F, Iorizzi M. Phenolic glycosides from Foeniculum vulgare fruit and evaluation of antioxidative activity. Phytochem. 2007;68:1805-1812.

26. Li H, Deng Z, Zhu H, Hu C, Liu R, Young JC, Tsao R. Highly pigmented vegetables: Anthocyanin compositions and their role in antioxidant activities. Food Res Int 2012;46:250-259.

27. Tummeleht L, Mägi M, Kilgas P, Mänd R, Hõrak P. Antioxidant protection and plasma carotenoids of incubating great tits (Parus major L.) in relation to health state and breeding conditions. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicol & Pharmacol. 2006;144:166-172.

28. Britton G, Liaaen-Jensen S, Pfander H (Eds.). Carotenoids volume 5: nutrition and health (Vol. 5). Springer Science & Business Media. 2009.

29. Chen H, Yan X, Zhu P, Lin J. Antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective potential of agarooligosaccharides in vitro and in vivo. Nutr. J. 2006;5:31-43.

30. Faudale M, Viladomat F, Bastida J, Poli F, Codina C. Antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of wild, edible, and medicinal fennel from different Mediterranean countries. J Agric & Food Chem. 2008;56:1912-1920.

31. Cos P, Ying L, Calomme M, Hu J, Cimanga K, Van Poel B, Pieters L, Vlietinck A, Vanden Berghe D. Structure-activity relationship and classification of flavonoids as inhibitors of xanthine oxidase and superoxide scavengers. J Nat Prod. 1998;61:71-76.

32. Lin C, Hsu Y, Lin T. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging effects of the tannins of Terminalia catappa L. Anticancer Research. 2001;21:237-243.

33. Battelli MG, Bolognesi A, Polito L. Pathophysiology of circulating xanthine oxidoreductase: New emerging roles for a multi-tasking enzyme. Bioch. et Bioph. Acta. 2014;1842:1502–1517.