The Effect of Rootstocks on the Peel Phenolic Compounds of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu)


1 Department of Horticulture, Roudehen Branch, Islamic Azad University, Roudehen, Iran

2 Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Tehran, Iran


The aim of this study was to determine total flavonoids and individually flavanone glycosides as well as antioxidant capacity in peel of Satsuma mandarin(Citrus unshiu) on different rootstocks.  On other hand, the purpose of this study was to identify the rootstock that could produce the highest amount of flavonoids.Total flavonoids content was measured using aluminum chloride colorimetric method, whereas Folin-Ciocalteau colorimetric method was used to determine the total phenols content. The antioxidant activities were evaluated using reducing scavenging assays of DPPH radicals. HPLC-PDA detection was used for the analysis of individual flavanone glycosides (narirutin, naringin and hesperidin).The results showed that, the highest individually flavanone glycosides (27.73 mg/g DW), total flavonoids (10.74 mg/g DW), total phenol (3.91 mg/g DW) and DPPH scavenging activity (60.00 mg/g DW) were in the peel of Satsuma mandarin grafting on the flying dragon rootstock. According to results, the amount of phenolic acids (0.36 mg/g DW) of Satsuma mandarin grafted on trifoliate orange was higher than those of other rootstocks. Among the flavonone glycosides, hesperidin was determined in the highest concentration in all investigated peels. The results of correlation showed that there were a high positive correlation between the amount of total flavonoids and total phenols. Results showed that rootstock had an important role in increasing of concentration flavonoids, as well as antioxidant capacity. Finally based on the obtained results it can be concluded that although the concentration of flavonoid compounds is strongly related to the genotype of fruit, it seems that rootstocks affect the amount of flavonoids in the fruit.


1. FAO. Statistical Database. Available from <> Accessed 23 July 2016.

2. Malik A,  Erginkaya Z,  Ahmad S, Erten H. Food processing: strategies for quality assessment, Springer, New York, 2014.

3. Bartosz G. Food oxidants and antioxidants: chemical, biological, and functional properties , CRC Press. Taylor & Francis Publishing Company, Florida, 2013.

4. Paliyath G,  Bakovic M,  Shetty K. Functional foods, nutraceuticals and degenerative disease prevention, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2011.

5. Brahmachari G. Bioactive Natural Products: Opportunities and challenges in medicinal chemistry, World Scientific, Singapore , 2012.

6. Khan AS. Flowering Plants: Structure and Industrial Products. John Wiley & Sons. 2017.

7. Legua P, Fornerb JB, Hernándeza FCA, Forner-Giner M.A.Total phenolics, organic acids, sugars and antioxidant activity of mandarin (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan.): Variation from rootstock. Sci  Hort. 2014;174:60–64.

8. Milella L, Caruso M, Galgano F, Favati F, Padula MC, Martelli G. Role of the cultivar in choosing Clementine fruits with high level of health-promoting compounds. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:5293-5298.

9. Mashayekhi K,  Sadeghi H, Akbarpour V, Atashi S,  Mousavizadeh SJ,  Abshaei  M,  Nazari Z.   Effect of some citrus rootstocks on the amount of biochemical composition of Parson Brown and Mars Oranges in Jiroft. J Hortic Sci. 2013;27:9-17.

10. Ghasemnezhad A, Ghasemi Y, Hemati Kh , Ebrahimzadeh MA, Ghasemi K. Effect of type of rootstock and fruit tissue on some chemical properties of page mandarin and thampson novel orange. J Plant Product. 2012;19:43-53.

11. Hemmati N, Ghasemnezhad A, Fattahi Moghadam J, Ebrahimi P. Investigating the relationship between the accumulation of phenolic compounds in Salustiana and Italian orange cultivars with their rootstock fruits. J Crops Improv. 2015; 17:571-581.

12.Gil-Izquierdo A, Riquelme MTPorras I, Ferreres F. Effect of the rootstock and interstock grafted in lemon tree(Citrus limon (L.) Burm.) on the flavonoid content of lemon juice. J Agric Food Chem. 2004; 52: 324-331.

13. Chen X, Yuan K, Hualiang L. Phenolic contents and antioxidant activities in ethanol extracts of Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ougan fruit. J  Food Agric Environ. 2010;8: 150-155.

14.  Parimelazhagan T. Pharmacological Assays of Plant-Based Natural Products. Springer, 2015.

15.  Makkar HPS. Quantification of Tannins in Tree and Shrub Foliage: A Laboratory Manual. Springer Science & Business Media, 2013.

16.  Dayan N. Skin Aging Handbook: An Integrated Approach to Biochemistry and Product development. .Personal Care and Cosmetic Technology. William Andrew, 2008

17. Umamaheswari M, Asokkumar K. In vitro antioxidant activitIes of leaves, fruits and peel extracts of citrus. Int J  Phyto  Pharm. 2012; 2:13-20.

18. El-Aal HAA, Halaweish FT. Food preservative activity of phenolic compounds in orange peel extracts (Citrus sinensis L.). Lucrari Stiintifice..2010; 53:457-464.

19. Aghajanpour SM,  Ghasemnezhad A, Faghih-Nasiri M,  Rastegar M.  Study the effect of rootstock on the fruit hesperidin and naringin contents of five commercial mandarins. Plant Products Technol . 2015;2:119 -126.

20. Al-Jaleel A, Zekri M, Hammam Y. Yield, fruit quality, and tree health of ‘Allen Eureka’ lemon on seven rootstocks in Saudi Arabia. Sci Hort. 2005; 105:457–465.

21. Muhtaseb J, Ghnaim H. Effect of four rootstocks on fruit quality of sweet orange c.v. 'Shamouti' under Jordan valley conditions. Emir J Agric Sci. 2006; 18:33-39.

22. Cano A, Bermejo A. Influence of rootstock and cultivar on bioactive compounds in citrus peels. Sci Food Agric. 2011; 91:1702-1711.

23. Levaj B, Dragovic-Uzelac V, Kovacevic DB , Krasnici N. Determination of flavonoids in pulp and peel of mandarin fruits. Agric conspec sci. 2009;74:221-225.

24. Ma YQ, Ye XQ, Fang ZX, Chen JC, Xu GH, Liu DH.  Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from Ultrasonic Treatment of Satsuma Mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) Peels. J Agric Food Chem. 2008; 56: 5682-5690.

25. Boudries H, Madani K, Touati N, Souagui S, Medouni S, Chibane M. Pulp antioxidant activities, mineral contents and juice nutritional properties of Algerian Clementine Cultivars and Mandarin. Afr J Biotechnol. 2012;11:4258-4267.

26. Moreno J, Peinado R. Enological Chemistry. Academic, 2012.

27. Ibrahim MH, Jaafar HZE, Karimi E, Ghasemzadeh A. Impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers application on the phytochemical and antioxidant activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth). Molecules. 2013;18: 10973-10988.

28.Frydman A, Weisshaus O, Bar-Peled M, Huhman DV, Sumner LW, Marin FR, Lewinsohn E, Fluhr R, Gressel J, Eyal Y.  Citrus fruit bitter flavors: isolation and functional characterization of the gene Cm1,2 RhaT encoding a rhamnosyltransferase, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of the bitter flavonoids of citrus. The Plant Journal. 2004; 40:88-100. 

29. Griffauta B, Bosb R, Maurizisb JC, Madelmontb JC, Ledoigta G. Cytotoxic effects of kinetin riboside on mouse, human and plant tumour cells. Int J Biol Macromol. 2004; 34:271-275.

30. Salamone IEG, Hynes RK, Nelson LM. Cytokinin production by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and selected mutants. Can J Microbiol. 2001;47:404-411.

31. Gorinstein S, Huang D, Leontowicz H , Leontowicz M, Yamamoto K, Soliva-Fortuny R, Martin-Belloso O  , Martinez AL, Trakhtenberg S. Determination of naringin and hesperidin in citrus fruit by High-. Performance Liquid Chromatography. The antioxidant potential of citrus fruitActa chromatographica. 2006;17:108-124.

32. Robinson KM, Ingvarsson PK, Jansson S, Albrectsen BR. Genetic variation in functional traits influences arthropod community composition in Aspen (Populus tremula L.). Plos One. 2012;7:1-12.