Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Capacity of Phenolic Compounds of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Seed depending upon the Extraction Process


1 Centro de Investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo, AC, Carretera Gustavo Enrique Astiazarán Rosas, No. 46. Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico (83000)

2 ISA CNR, Institute Food Science, Via Roma 64, I-83100 Avellino, Italy

3 Department of Food Science and Post-Harvest Technology, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur, Bihar (813210) India

4 Carretera Gustavo Enrique Astiazarán Rosas, No. 46. Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico (83000)


The extraction method is critical for the recovery of phenolic compounds. The main goal was to evaluate the effect of an extraction process from mango seed on their phenolic profile, antioxidant and antimicrobial capacities. Phenolic extraction was performed in different steps: maceration, alkaline hydrolysis, acid/alkaline hydrolysis, polar and non-polar fraction of an ethyl acetate separation.The macerated extract showed a higher variety of polyphenols from mango seed:gallic (138.36 µg/g dry weight), coumaric (65.36 µg/g), ferulic (1376.67 µg/g) , chlorogenic (57.75 µg/g) anddicaffeoylquinic (219.29 µg/g) acids, catechin (16.78 µg/g) and rutin (6678.62µg/g). In alkaline hydrolyzed extract most of these compounds were lost, ferulic acid decreased 1356.77 µg/g dw and gallic acid increased 1383.89 µg/g dw. Gallic and chlorogenic acids increased 165 and 969. 45 µg/g dw respectively in acid/alkaline hydrolyzed, 109.57 and 841.38 µg/g dw respectively in non-polar and 277.15 and 77.88 µg/g dw respectively in polar extracts related to the macerated extract. Rutin was found only in acid/hydrolyzed and non-polar extract in lesser amount (87.62 and 78.51 µg/g dw) compared to macerated extract. The content of phenolic compounds was higher for the macerated extract (phenols=484.42 mg GAE/g and flavonoids=86.59 mg QE/g) than for the other steps. Acid/alkaline hydrolysis increased the antioxidant activity (1787.67 μmol TE/g for DPPH and 3692.86 μmol TE/g for TEAC); while the alkaline hydrolysis increased the antimicrobial effectivity (MIC=2.5 mg/mL for bacteria and 0.5 mg/mL for yeast). Results indicate that the acid or alkaline hydrolysis yields a stronger antioxidant and antimicrobial extract.


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