Phytochemicals, Phenolic Profiles, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Ferulago macrocarpa Extracts from Lorestan


Department of Biology, Lorestan University, Khoram Abad, Iran


Ferulago macrocarpa (Fenzl) Boiss. commonly known as Chavil e Roshanball in Persian is a medicinal and aromatic plant from the Apiaceae family that grows in the west of Iran. The aim of this study was to investigate the phytochemical components, phenolic contents, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of hydroalcoholic extracts of F. macrocarpa flower and leaf from Lorestan, Iran.IC50 values, total phenol, flavonoid and anthocyanin contents of flower and leaf extracts were 481.75 and 1505.59 μg/mL, 59.33 and 45.57 mg Gallic acid equivalents, 45.76 and 11.53 mg Catechin equivalents and 0.73 mg Cyanidin-3-glucoside per g of dried extract, respectively. The flowers extract exhibited inhibitory effects on Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. Analysis of the flower and leaf extracts by Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) resulted in twenty-seven molecules consisting 97.42% of the total flowers extract volatile, and forty-four molecules consisting 94.91% of the total leaves extract volatile. The major components were bornyl acetate (37.1%), terpinolene (9.99%), thymol (7.46%) and limonene (6.39%) in the flower extract, and bornyl acetate (37.91%), o-cymene (7.83%), 2-hexanal (7.01%) and camphene (5.57%) in the leaf extract.


1. Sosa V, Moliné T, Somoza R, Paciucci R, Kondoh H, Leonart M E. Oxidative stress and cancer: an overview. Ageing Res. Rev. 2013;12:376-390.

2. Khalili M, Ebrahimzadeh MA. A review on antioxidants and some of their common evaluation methods. JMUMS. 2015;24:188-208.

3. Sharififar F, Moshafi MH, Mansouri SH, Khodashenas M, Khoshnoodi M. In vitro evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extract of endemic Zataria multi flora Boiss. Food control. 2007;18:800-805.

4. Blokhina O, Virolainen E, Fagerstedt KV. Antioxidants, oxidative damage and oxygen deprivation stress: a review. Ann. Bot. 2003;91:179-194.

5. Alavi L, Barzegar M, Jabbari A, Naghdi Badi H. Effect of heat treatment on chemical composition and antioxidant property of Thymus daenensis essential oil. JMPR. 2010;3:129-138.

6. Tuyen PT, Xuan TD, Khang DT, Ahmad A, Quan NV, Tu Anh TT, Minh TN. Phenolic Compositions and Antioxidant Properties in Bark, Flower, Inner Skin, Kernel and Leaf Extracts of Castanea crenata Sieb. et Zucc. Antioxidants. 2017;6:31-44.

7. Karaman Ş, Tütem E, Başkan K S, Apak R. Comparison of total antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of some apple juices with combined HPLC-CUPRAC assay. Food Chem. 2010;120:1201-1209.

8. Sajjadi S, Shokoohinia Y, Jamali M. Chemical composition of essential oil of Ferulago macrocarpa (Fenzl) Boiss. fruits. RPS. 2012;7:197-200.

9. Basile A, Sorbo S, Spadaro V, Bruno M, Maggio A, Faraone N, Rosselli S. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of coumarins from the roots of Ferulago campestris (Apiaceae). Molecules. 2009;14:939-952.

10. Amirghofran Z, Bahmani M, Azadmehr A, Javidnia K. Anticancer effects of various Iranian native medicinal plants on human tumor cell lines. Neoplasma. 2006;53:428-433.

11. Abedini A, Roumy V, Mahieux S, Gohari A, Farimani M M, Rivière C, Hennebelle T. Antimicrobial activity of selected Iranian medicinal plants against a broad spectrum of pathogenic and drug multi resistant micro‐organisms. J. Appl. Microbiol. 2014;59:412-421.

12. Dall'Acqua S, Maggi F, Minesso P, Salvagno M, Papa F, Vittori S, Innocenti G. Identification of non-alkaloid acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from Ferulago campestris (Besser) Grecescu (Apiaceae). Fitoterapia, 2010;81:1208-1212.

13. Sajjadi SE, Jamali M, Shokoohinia Y, Abdi G, Shahbazi B, Fattahi A. Antiproliferative evaluation of terpenoids and terpenoid coumarins from Ferulago macrocarpa (Fenzl) Boiss. fruits. Phcog Res. 2015;7:322-328.

14. Rafieian-kopaei M, Shahinfard N, Rouhi-Boroujeni H, Gharipour M, Darvishzadeh-Boroujeni P. Effects of Ferulago angulata extract on serum lipids and lipid peroxidation. Evidence-Based Complementary & Alter Med. 2014;680856:1-4.

15. Taran M, Ghasempour HR, Shirinpour E. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Ferulago angulata subsp. carduchorum. Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2010;3:10-14.

16. Jiménez‐Escrig A, Jiménez‐Jiménez I, Sánchez‐Moreno C, Saura‐Calixto F. Evaluation of free radical scavenging of dietary carotenoids by the stable radical 2, 2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl. J Sci Food Agric. 2000; 80:1686-1690.

17. Ainsworth EA, Gillespie KM. Estimation of total phenolic content and other oxidation substrates in plant tissues using Folin–Ciocalteu reagent. Nat. Protoc. 2007;2:875.

18. Kumar S, Kumar D, Saroha K, Singh N, Vashishta B. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging potential of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. methanolic fruit extract. Acta Pharm. 2008;58:215-220.

19. Giusti MM, Wrolstad RE. Characterization and measurement of anthocyanins by UV‐visible spectroscopy. CPFAC. Wiley, 2001.

20. Wrolstad R E, Durst R W, Lee J. Tracking color and pigment changes in anthocyanin products. Trends food sci tech. 2005;16:423-428.

21. Li Z, Lee D, Sheng X, Cohen RE, Rubner MF. Two-level antibacterial coating with both release-killing and contact-killing capabilities. Langmuir. 2006;22:9820-9823.

22. Yuan JP, Li X, Xu SP, Wang JH, Liu X. Hydrolysis kinetics of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside oligomers from flaxseed. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:10041-10047.

23. Nimse SB, Pal D. Free radicals, natural antioxidants, and their reaction mechanisms. Rsc Advances. 2015;5:27986-28006.

24. Cacace J E, Mazza G. Mass transfer process during extraction of phenolic compounds from milled berries. J Food Eng. 2003;59:379-389.

25. Shi J, Yu J, Pohorly J, Young JC, Bryan M, Wu Y. Optimization of the extraction of polyphenols from grape seed meal by aqueous ethanol solution. J Food Agric Environ. 2003;1:42.

26. Wissam Z, Ghada B, Wassim A, Warid K. Effective extraction of polyphenols and proanthocyanidins from pomegranate’s peel. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2012;4:675-682.

27. Najar M, Hemmati KH, Khorasaninejad S, Bagherifard A. The effect of altitude on the morphological and biochemical characteristics of Urticadioica L. in Mazandaran and Golestan province. Iranian Journal of Plant Ecophysiology. 2014;9:1-11.

28. Duffy CF, Power RF. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of some Chinese plant extracts. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2001;17:527-529.

29. Tabatabaei Yazdi F, Alizade Behbahani B, Heidari Sureshjani M. The comparison of antimicrobial effects of Chevil (Ferulago angulata) extract with a variety of common therapeutic antibiotics in vitro. J Arak Uni Med Sci. 2014;17:35-46.

30. Chalabian F, Monfared A, Larijani K, Saldozi S. Comparison of the matter in the three plants Ferulago subvelutin, Chenopodiumbotrys L., Rechandrosagallica, investigate their antimicrobial activity against some pathogenic bacteria. J Med Aromatic Plant Res Iran. 2005;2:146-154.

31. Sokmen A, Gulluce M, Akpulat HA, Daferera D, Tepe B, Polissiou M, Sahin F. The in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oils and methanol extracts of endemic Thymus spathulifolius. Food control. 2004;15:627-634.

32. HAJI AA, Aghel N, Etemadi R. Chemical and biological study of essential oil of Ferulago macrocarpa (Fenzi) Boiss. Hamdard Med. 2002;45:35-38.

33. Asghari J, Salehi M, Mazaheri Tehrani M. Isolation of borneol and bornyl acetate from Ferulago macrocarpa by microwave irradiation. JHD. 2013;4:89-94.