The Extract Analysis and Antibacterial Survey of Different Parts of Gilan Native Clerodendrum bungei on Clinical Isolates

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Faculty of Basic science, Rasht branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran

2 Faculty of Basic Science, Rasht branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran


Medicinal uses of plants to treat of diseases has increased in recent years. Clerodendrum is a genus of plants belonging to Verbenaceae family. Clerodendrum bungei Steud. is native to the Gilan province, but its antibacterial effects have not been studied. For this reason, the aim of the present study was to investigate the phytochemical analysis and antibacterial properties of the alcoholic extracts of C. bungei. was collected from Sowme’ eh Sara city located in the northwest of the Gilan province, from May to August 2018 with equal amount. Extracts were prepared from different parts of C. bungei using 70% ethanol by the maceration method and were analysed using GC/MS. Seven bacterial isolates from clinical samples were collected from patients referred to the social welfare polyclinic in Rasht. After confirmatory diagnostic tests for all specimens, an antibiogram test (disk diffusion method) was performed and the antimicrobial activities of the extracts were evaluated using disk diffusion and broth dilution methods on 7 isolates of Escherichia coli, Enterobacter, Shigella, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase negative Staphylococcus. The results were showed that the alcoholic extract of the leaves before flowering was more effective on Pseudomonas than other bacteria. Also, the alcoholic extract of the leaves during flowering was effective on S. aureus. The extract of the flower was effective on E. coli only at a concentration of 250 mg/ml. The MIC values of the different alcoholic extracts of C. bungei on all isolates were 8.06 to 500 mg/ml. The MBC values of the different extracts of C. bungei on isolates were 500 mg/ml. The phytochemical compound, phytol was identified as the main component in the leaf extracts of C. bungei before (9.52%) and during (3.6%) flowering and therefore it seems to be the compound responsible for the antimicrobial properties of C. bungei leaves. The main effective components in the flowers, stems and roots of C. bungei were identified to be linalool (7.8%), aziridine (3.53%), thymol (21.84%), respectively. Linalol prevents dental cavity and has antiallergic, antiviral and antibacterial effects. Thymol has a very strong antimicrobial properties and can destroy outer membrane (OM) of gram-negative bacteria and remove the lipopolysaccharides and increase the permeability of the plasma membrane. Among the chemical compounds identified in the extracts, compounds with functional groups and acircular structure seems to have antibacterial properties. It is concluded from this study that C. bungei possesses antibacterial properties.


  1. Izadi Z, Modarres Sanavi SAM, Sorooshzadeh A, Sna-Ashari M, Davoodi P. Antimicrobial activity of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) and feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.). J Armaghane-danesh. 2013;18:31-43.
  2. Shahnia M, Khaksar R. Antimicrobial effects and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods of essential oils against pathogenic bacteria. Iran J Nutr Sci Food Technol. 2013;7:949-955.
  3. Oly WT, Islam W, Hassan P, Parween S. Antimicrobial Activity of Clerodendrum viscosum (Verbenaceae). Int J Agric Biol. 2011;222-226.
  4. Shrivastava N, Patel T. Clerodendrum and Heathcare: An Overview. Med Aroma Plant Sci Biotech, Global Science Books. 2007;142-150.
  5. Liu SS, Zhou T, Zhang SW, Xuan LJ. Chemical Constituents from Clerodendrum bungei and Their Cytotoxic Activities. Helvetica Chimica Acta. 2009;92:1070-1079.
  6. Balaji K, Kilimozhi D. GC-MS Analysis of various extracts of Clerodendrum phlomidis leaf. Int J Pharm Pharmaceut Sci. 2014, 6(1): 226-232.
  7. Waliullah TM, Yeasmin AM, Ashraful A, Wahedul IM, Parvez H. Antimicrobial potency screening of Clerodendrum infortunatum. Int Res J Pharm. 2014;5:57-61.
  8. Awasthi LP, Singh SP. Clerodendrum- A Novel Herb Having Broad Spectrum Antimicrobial Properties. Asi Agri His. 2015;19:33-44.
  9. Delaquis PJ, Mazza G. Antimicrobial properties of isothiocyanates in food preservation. J Food Technol. 1995;49:73-84.
  10. Lanciotti R, Gianatti A, patrignani F, belletti N, Guerzoni ME, Gardini F. Use of natural aroma compounds to improve shelf life and safety of minimally processed fruits. J Food Sci Technol. 2004;15:201-8.
  11. Leitner L. Basic aspect of food preservation by hurdle technol. Int J Food Microbiol. 2000;55:18-186.
  12. Kim J, Marshal M, Wei C. Antibacterial activity of some essential oil components against five food borne pathogens. J Agri Food Chem. 1995;43:2839-45.
  13. Pejin B, Savic A, Sokovic M, Glamocilija J, Ciric A, Nicolic M, et al. Further in vitro evaluation of antiradical and antimicrobial activities of phytol. Nat Prod Res 2014;28:372-6.
  14. Kang CH, Jayasooriya R, Choi Y, Moon SK, Kim WJ, Kim GY. β-Ionone attenuates LPS-induced proinflammatory mediators such as NO, PGE2 and TNF-in BV2 microglial cells via suppression of the NF-B and MAPK pathway. Toxicol In Vitro 2013;27:782-7.
  15. Dakhili M, Zahrai Salehi T, Torabi Goodarzi M, Khavari A. Evaluation of antimicrobial effects of 4 medicinal plants against salmonella typhymurium and comparison them with common antibiotics in veterinary medicine. J Med Plants. 2006;5:21-24.
  16. Ezati Sh, Mirzaie A, Zandi M. Evaluation of Anti-efflux Activity of Anthemis atropatana Extract against Ciprofloxacin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus J Medicinal Plants. 2018;17:122-195.
  17. Burt, S. Essential oils: Their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods-A International J Food Microbiology. 2004;94:223-253.
  18. Zargari A. Medicinal Plants. 5th ed. Tehran: Tehran University Press. 1995. p. 77-81
  19. Momoh H, Habila JD, Ayo RG, Ndukwe GI. Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd) leave extracts inhibits bacteria, fungi and Mycobacterium bovis. Sch Acad J Biosci (SAJB). 2015;3:386-391.
  20. Borik RM. Isolation and Structural Characterization of a Steroidal Antimicrobial Agent from Clerodendrum baroianum. World J Chem. 2013;8:48-54.
  21. Venkatanarasimman B, Rajeswari T, Padmapriya B. Antibacterial Potential of Crude Leaf Extract of Clerodendrum philippinum Int J Pharm Biol Arch. 2012;3:307-310.