The Effect of Mandarin Scions (Citrus spp.) on the Peel and Pulp Phenolic Compounds

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Horticulture, Roudehen Branch, Islamic Azad University, Roudehen, Iran

2 Department of Medicinal Plants & By-products, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Tehran, Iran

3 Iran Citrus Research Institute, Ramsar, Iran


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mandarin scions on total flavonoids and individual flavanones as well as antioxidant capacity in peel and pulp of fruits. Total flavonoids and total phenols content was measured using aluminum chloride colorimetric and Folin-Ciocalteau colorimetric method respectively. Assay of DPPH radical scavenging was used to evaluate antioxidant activities. Individual flavanones (narirutin, naringin and hesperidin) detected and analyzed using HPLC-PDA. Among the flavonones, hesperidin was determined in the highest concentration in all investigated samples. Level of flavanones (25.05 mg/g DW) and total flavonoids (10 mg/g DW) in peel of Satsuma mandarin and the amount of phenolic acids (1.17 mg/g DW) in peel of Younesi tangerine was higher than other scions. The results of correlation showed that there was a high positive correlation between the amount of total flavonoids and hesperidin. The results of this study showed useful information on functional and phytochemical compounds in mandarin cultivars that can be used in pharmaceutical industry and provide valuable genetic resources for breeding programs.


  1. Blancke R. Tropical Fruits and Other Edible Plants of the World: An Illustrated Guide. Cornell University Press, 2016.
  2. Goldenberg L, Yaniv Y, Doron-Faigenboim A, Carmi N, Porat R. Diversity among mandarin varieties and natural sub-groups in aroma volatiles compositions. J Sci Food Agric. 2016;96:57-65.
  3. Cosme P, Rodríguez AB, Espino J, Garrido M. Plant phenolics: Bioavailability as a key determinant of their potential health-promoting applications. Antioxidants. 2020;9, 1263:1-20.
  4. Khan SA, Ahmad R, Asad SA, Shahzad M. Citrus Flavonoids: Their Biosynthesis, Functions and Genetic Improvement. In: Hayat K (eds.). Citrus Molecular Phylogeny, Antioxidant Properties and Medicinal Uses, Nova Science Publishers, New York. 2014;31-50.
  5. Lado J, Cuellar  F,  Rodrigo  MJ,  Zacarías  L. Nutritional Composition of Mandarins. In:  Simmonds M , Preedy VR (eds.).  Nutritional Composition of Fruit Cultivars, Elsevier Science Publication, New York. 2015;420-440.
  6. Paliyath G, Bakovic M, Shetty K. Functional Foods, Nutraceuticals and Degenerative Disease Prevention, John Wiley & Sons, New York. 2011.
  7. Brahmachari G. Bioactive Natural Products: Opportunities and Challenges in Medicinal Chemistry, World Scientific, Singapore. 2012.
  8. Khan AS. Flowering Plants: Structure and Industrial Products. John Wiley & Sons. 2017.
  9. Babazadeh-Darjazi B, Jaimand K. The effect of rootstocks on the peel phenolic compounds of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). J Med Plants By-products. 2018;2:199-208.
  10. Milella L, Caruso M, Galgano F, Favati F, Padula MC, Martelli G. Role of the cultivar in choosing Clementine fruits with high level of health-promoting compounds. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:5293-5298.
  11. Aghajanpour SM , Ghasemnezhad A , Faghinasiri M , Rastegar M. Study the effect of rootstock on the fruit hesperidin and naringin contents of five commercial mandarins.   Plant Products Technol. 2015;14:119-126.
  12. Levaj B, Dragovic-uzelac V,Kovacevic DB, Krasnici N. Determination of flavonoids in pulp and peel of mandarin fruits. Agric Conspec Sci. 2009;74:221-225.
  13. BermejoA,Llosa MJCano A. Analysis of bioactive compounds in seven citrus cultivars. Food Sci Technol Intl. 2011;17: 55-62.
  14. Chen X, Yuan K, Hualiang L. Phenolic contents and antioxidant activities in ethanol extracts of Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ougan fruit. J Food Agric Environ. 2010;8:150-155.
  15. Umamaheswari M, Asokkumar K. In vitro antioxidant activities of leaves, fruits and peel extracts of citrus. Int J Phyto Pharm. 2012;2:13-20.
  16. El-Aal HAA, Halaweish FT. Food preservative activity of phenolic compounds in orange peel extracts(Citrus sinensis L.). Lucrari Stiintifice. 2010;53: 457-464.
  17. Cano A, Bermejo A. Influence of rootstock and cultivar on bioactive compounds in citrus peels. Sci Food Agric. 2011;91:1702-1711.
  18. Ma YQ, Ye XQ, Fang ZX, Chen JC, Xu GH, Liu DH. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of extracts from ultrasonic treatment of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) Peels. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:5682-5690.
  19. Nogata Y,Sakamoto K,Shiratsuchi HIshii T, Yano M, Ohta HFlavonoid composition of fruit tissues of citrus species. Biosci Biotechonol Biochem. 2006;70:178-192.
  20. Xi W, Zhang Y, Sun Y, Shen Y, Ye X, Zhou Z. Phenolic composition of Chinese wild mandarin (Citrus reticulata Balnco) pulps and their antioxidant properties. Ind Crops Prod. 2014;52:466-474.
  21. Cano A, Medina A, Bermejo A. Bioactive compounds in different citrus varieties. Discrimination among cultivars. J Food Compos Anal. 2008;21:377-381.
  22. Boudries H, Madani K, Touati N, Souagui S, Medouni S, Chibane M. Pulp antioxidant activities, mineral contents and juice nutritional properties of Algerian Clementine cultivars and mandarin. Afr J Biotechnol. 2012;11:4258-4267.
  23. Moreno J, Peinado R. Enological Chemistry. Academic Press.2012.
  24. Ibrahim MH, Jaafar HZE, Karimi E, Ghasemzadeh A. Impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers application on the phytochemical and antioxidant activity of Kacip Fatimah(Labisia pumila Benth). Molecules. 2013;18:10973-10988.
  25. Frydman A, Weisshaus O, Bar-Peled M, Huhman DV, Sumner LW, Marin FR, Lewinsohn E, Fluhr R, Gressel J, Eyal Y.Citrus fruit bitter flavors: isolation and functional characterization of the gene Cm1,2 RhaT encoding a rhamnosyltransferase, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of the bitter flavonoids of citrus. The Plant J. 2004;40:88-100.
  26. Robinson KM, Ingvarsson PK, Jansson S, Albrectsen BR. Genetic variation in functional traits influences arthropod community composition in Aspen (Populus tremula L.). Plos One. 2012;7:1-12.