Essential Oil, Phenol and Flavonoid Contents in Leaves and Fruits of Prunus scoparia (Spach) C.K. Schneid. Populations

Document Type : Research Paper


Forestry Department, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural resources, Lorestan University, Lorestan, Iran


Medicinal plants are rich in secondary metabolites that constitute the composition of many drugs. The quantity and quality of these valuable materials are affected by environmental factors. The present study evaluated biochemical properties in leaves and fruits for three populations of Prunus scoparia (Spach) C.K. Schneid. Analysis of essential oil (EO) samples was performed by using GC and GC–MS. The results showed that total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of leaves in population 2 (Markazi) were 39.01 and 11.32 mg/g DW respectively. DPPH radical scavenging activity in population 2 was 45.5 % in leaves. Fruit EO content was 33% in population 1 (Lorestan). Heat map analysis distinguished two different clusters as one cluster for population 2 and another cluster for populations 1 and 3. The GC/MS analysis showed the main EO composition of fruits were Benzaldehyde (15.19-18.65%) followed by n-Hexadecanoic acid (14.67-18.3%), Benzyl Alcohol (4.12-6.42%), and 9-Octadecenoic acid (Z)-, ethyl ester (4.9-6.28%). In addition, the major EO profile for leaves were Neophytadiene (3.2-15%), dehydroaromadendrene (7.4-13.9%), Borneol (7.12-10.4%), cis-3-Hexenyl benzoate (6.4-9.5), trans-beta-Ionone (4.3-7.8%), Eugenol (2.3-7.3%), Benzyl benzoate (2.7-4.12%), and Di-epi-alpha-cedrene-(I) (2-5.5%).


  1. Alimohammadi A, Shiran B., Martínez-Gómez P. Ebrahimie E. Identification of water-deficit resistance genes in wild almond Prunus scoparia using cDNA-AFLP. Sci Hortic. 2013;159:19-28.
  2. Zeinalabedini M., Khayam-Nekoui M., Grigorian V., Gradziel T.M., and Martínez-Gómez P. The origin and dissemination of the cultivated almond as determined by nuclear and chloroplast SSR marker analysis. Sci Hortic (Amsterdam, Neth). 2010;125:593-601.
  3. Sorkheh K., Kiani S., Sofo A. Wild almond (Prunus scoparia ) as potential oilseed resource for the future: Studies on the variability of its oil content and composition. Food chem. 2016;212:58-64.
  4. Pirbalouti A.G., Moalem E., Yousefi M., Malekpoor F., Yousef-Naanaie S. Influence of ecological factors on carvacrol content of Satureja khuzestanica J Essent Oil-Bear Plants. 2011;14:630-638.
  5. Farhadi N., Babaei K., Farsaraei S., Moghaddam M., Pirbaloti A.G. Changes in essential oil compositions, total phenol, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity of Achillea millefolium at different growth stages. Ind Crop Prod. 2020;152: 112570.
  6. Thakur M., Bhattacharya S., Khosla P.K., Puri S. Improving production of plant secondary metabolites through biotic and abiotic elicitation. J Appl Res Med Aromat Plants. 2019;12:1-12.
  7. Makkar HP, Siddhuraju P, Becker K. Plant secondary metabolites, Humana Press. 2007.
  8. Rahimmalek M., Heidari E.F., Ehtemam M.H., Mohammadi S. Essential oil variation in Iranian Ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague) populations collected from different geographical regions in relation to climatic factors. Ind Crops Prod. 2019;95:591-598.
  9. Tohidi B., Rahimmalek M., Trindade H. essential oil, extracts composition, molecular and phytochemical properties of Thymus species in Iran- A Review. Industrial Crops and Products. 2019;134:89-99.
  10. Nerio L.S., Olivero-Verbel J., Stashenko E. Repellent activity of essential oils: A review. Bioresour Technol. 2010;101:372-378.
  11. Niazian M., Sadat Noori S.A., Tohidfar M., Mortazavian S.M.M. Essential oil yield and agro-morphological traits in some Iranian ecotypes of ajowan (Carum copticum). J Essent Oil-Bear Plants. 2017;20:1151-1156.
  12. Abedi R., Golparvar A.R., Hadipanah A. Identification of the essential oils composition from four ecotypes of Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. growing wild in Isfahan province, Iran.J Biosci Biotechnol Discov. 2015;4:117-121.
  13. Comino C., Pignata G., Portis E., Dolzhenko Y., Casale M., Nicola S. Selection in Artemisia umbelliformis Piedmont ecotypes to improve cultivation in alpine environment. Genet Resour Crop Evol. 2015;62:567-577.
  14. Alizadeh A. Essential Oil Constituents and Biological Activities of Different Ecotypes of Satureja bachtiarica as a Traditional Herbal Drug in Southwestern Iran. J Essent Oil-Bear Plants. 2016;19:1328-1339.
  15. Kalaycıoğlu Z., Erim F.B. Total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, and bioactive ingredients of juices from pomegranate cultivars worldwide. Food chem. 2017;221:496-507.
  16. Vázquez-León L.A., Páramo-Calderón D.E., Robles-Olvera V.J., Valdés-Rodríguez O.A., Pérez-Vázquez A., García-Alvarado M.A., Rodríguez-Jimenes G.C. Variation in bioactive compounds and antiradical activity of Moringa oleifera leaves: influence of climatic factors, tree age, and soil parameters. Eur Food Res Technol. 2017;243:1593-1608.
  17. Stanković M., Ćurčić S., Zlatić N., Bojović B. Ecological variability of the phenolic compounds of Olea europaea leaves from natural habitats and cultivated conditions. Biotechnol Biotechnol Equip. 2017;31:499-504.
  18. Singleton V.L., Orthofer R., Lamuela-Raventós R.M. [14] Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of folin-ciocalteu reagent. Methods Enzymol. 1999;299:152-178.
  19. Maissoneuve S.A. European Pharmacopoeia, Council of Europe.
  20. Sefidkon F., Abbasi K., Khanik G.B. Influence of drying and extraction methods on yield and chemical composition of the essential oil of Satureja hortensis. Food chem. 2006;99:19-23.
  21. Zhishen J., Mengcheng T., Jianming W. The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food chem. 1999;64:555-559.
  22. Brand-Williams W., Cuvelier M.E., Berset C.L.W.T. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT. 1995;28:25-30.
  23. Pollastri S., Tattini, M. Flavonols: old compounds for old roles. Ann Bot. 2011;108:1225-1233.
  24. Shalaby S., Horwitz B.A. Plant phenolic compounds and oxidative stress: integrated signals in fungal–plant interactions. Curr Genet. 2015;61:347-357.
  25. Zoratti L., Karppinen K., Luengo Escobar A., Häggman H., Jaakola L. Light-controlled flavonoid biosynthesis in fruits. Front Plant Sci. 2014;5:534.
  26. Zrig A., Tounekti T., Hegab M.M., Ali S.O., Khemira H. Essential oils, amino acids and polyphenols changes in salt-stressed Thymus vulgaris exposed to open–field and shade enclosure. Ind Crop Prod. 2016;91:223-230.
  27. del Valle J.C., Buide M.L., Casimiro-Soriguer I., Whittall J.B., Narbona E. On flavonoid accumulation in different plant parts: variation patterns among individuals and populations in the shore campion (Silene littorea). Front Plant Sci. 2015;6:939.
  28. Farhat M.B., Jordán M.J., Chaouch-Hamada R., Landoulsi A., Sotomayor J.A. Changes in phenolic profiling and antioxidant capacity of Salvia aegyptiaca by-products during three phenological stages. LWT. 2015;63:791-797.
  29. Souhir K., Dorra S., Bettaib R.I., Mattew S., Neila T.F., Marie-Laure F., Sonia M. Influence of climate variation on phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of Medicago minima Sci. Rep. 2020;10:1-6.
  30. Ghasemi K., Ghasemi Y., Ehteshamnia A., Nabavi S.M., Nabavi S.F., Ebrahimzadeh M.A., Pourmorad F. Influence of environmental factors on antioxidant activity, phenol and flavonoids contents of walnut (Juglans regia) green husks. J Med Plants Res. 2011;5:1128-1133.
  31. Sampaio B.L., Bara M.T.F., Ferri PH., Santos S.D.C., Paula, J.R.D. Influence of environmental factors on the concentration of phenolic compounds in leaves of Lafoensia pacari. Rev Bras Farmacogn. 2011;21:1127-1137.
  32. Afshari M., Rahimmalek M., Miroliaei M. Variation in polyphenolic profiles, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of different achillea species as natural sources of antiglycative compounds. Chem Biodivers. 2018;15:e1800075.
  33. Saki A., Mozafari H., Asl K.K., Sani B., Mirza M. Plant Yield, Antioxidant Capacity and Essential Oil Quality of Satureja Mutica Supplied with Cattle Manure and Wheat Straw in Different Plant Densities. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal. 2019;50:2683-2693.
  34. Fejér J., Gruľová D., Eliašová A., Kron I., De Feo V. Influence of environmental factors on content and composition of essential oil from common juniper ripe berry cones (Juniperus communis ). Plant Biosyst. 2018;152:1227-1235.
  35. Padilla-González G.F., Frey M., Gómez-Zeledón J., Da Costa F.B., Spring O. Metabolomic and gene expression approaches reveal the developmental and environmental regulation of the secondary metabolism of yacón (Smallanthus sonchifolius, Asteraceae). Sci Rep. 2019;9:1-15.
  36. Mollaei S., Ebadi M., Hazrati S., Habibi B., Gholami F., Sourestani M.M. Essential oil variation and antioxidant capacity of Mentha pulegium populations and their relation to ecological factors. Biochem Syst Ecol. 2020;91:104084.
  37. Geng H., Yu X., Lu A., Cao H., Zhou B., Zhou L., Zhao Z. Extraction, chemical composition, and antifungal activity of essential oil of bitter almond. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17:1421.
  38. Bajalan I., Rouzbahani R., Ghasemi Pirbalouti A., Maggi F. Quali-quantitative variation of essential oil from Iranian rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) accessions according to environmental factors. J Essent Oil Res. 2018;30:16-24.