Diversity in Essential Oil Compounds in Relation to Different Geographic Origins and Plant Organs of Salvia sharifii

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Horticulture Science and Engineering, College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Hormozgan, Bandar Abbas, Iran


Medicinal and aromatic plants are rich in active substances that represent many medicines. Climatic factors and ontogenetic growth stages affect the quantity and quality of these costly materials. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of the geographic origins and the different plant organs (leaves, flowers and stalks) of Salvia sharifii Rech. f. & Esfand., an endemic aromatic herb in the south of Iran, essential oil in three different natural habitats. The essential oil was extracted by hydro-distillation using Clevenger type apparatus and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The highest essential oil content was obtained in flower (1.2%) and stalk (0.7%) of S. sharifii in Sirmand population. Also, in the latter plant organ, the highest essential oil content was observed in Abmah population (1.1%). Essential oils were characterized by the domination of sesquiterpenes (37.92­‒84.40%), followed by monoterpenes (13.42‒58.86%). Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the essential oil identified 58 constituents that varied with plant origin and organ. Results revealed that the main essential oil constituents in S. sharifii were linalool, hexyl-2-methyl­ butyrate, caryophyllene, sclareol oxide, agarospirol and hexyl caprylate in different plant organs and natural habitats. The variations among natural populations of S. sharifii showed that add to the impact of plant inheritance, it conjointly encompasses a high adaptation potential so that a variety of climatic conditions like temperature, altitude and rainfall are among different populations.


  1. Patel K., Patel D.K. Medicinal importance, pharmacological activities, and analytical aspects of hispidulin: A concise report. Tradit Complement Med J. 2017; 7: 360-366.
  2. Grazina L, Amaral J.S., Mafra I. Botanical origin authentication of dietary supplements by DNA-based approaches. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf. 2020; 19: 1541-4337.
  3. Poswal FS, Russell G, Mackonochie M, MacLennan E, Adukwu EC, Rolfe V. Herbal teas and their health benefits: A scoping review. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2019; 74: 266–276.
  4. Drew B. Evolution, pollination biology, and species richness of Salvia (Lamiaceae). Int J Plant Sci. 2020; 181: 1-3.
  5. Etminan A., Pour-Aboughadareh A., Noori A., Ahmadi-Rad A., Shooshtari L., Mahdavian Z. Yousefiazar-Khanian M. Genetic relationships and diversity among wild Salvia accessions revealed by ISSR and SCoT markers. Biotech Biotechnological Equip J. 2018; 32: 610-617.
  6. Ardestani E.G., Ghahfarrokhi ZH. Ensembpecies distribution modeling of Salvia hydrangea under future climate change scenarios in Central Zagros mountains. Iran J Global Eco Cons. 2021; 26: e01488.
  7. Kahnamoei M.B., Tabefam M., Ebrahimi S.N., Danton O., Hamburger M., Farimani M.M. Chemical constituents from the ethyl acetate extract of Salvia hydrangea. Nat Prod Commun. 2019; 14(6): 1-4.
  8. Lopresti A.L. Salvia (sage): a review of its potential cognitive-enhancing and protective effects. Drugs R D. 2017; 17(1): 53-64.
  9. Jamzad Z. Flora of Iran: Lamiaceae. Res Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Tehran, Iran. 2012. (In Persian)
  10. Tooryan F., Azizkhani M. Antioxidant effect of the aerial parts of basil (Ocimum basilicum) and clary sage (Salvia sclarea) essential oils in Iranian white cheese. Iranian Food Sci Tech Res J. 2017; 13(2): 346-362.‏ (In Persian)
  11. Shirsat R., Kokate P., Surdakar S. Morphological and anatomical characterization of Salvia pleibea from Maharashtra (India). Bio Dis J. 2012; 3(2): 165-168.
  12. Cutillas A.B., Carrasco A., Martinez‐Gutierrez R., Tomas V., Tudela J. Salvia officinalis L. essential oils from Spain: determination of composition, antioxidant capacity, antienzymatic, and antimicrobial bioactivities. Chem Biodivers. 2017; 14(8): e1700102.‏
  13. Asgarpanah J., Oveyli E., Alidoust S. Volatile components of the endemic species Salvia sharifii Rech. f. & Esfand. Essent Oil-Bear Plants J. 2017; 20(2): 578-582.
  14. Asadollahi M., Firuzi O., Jamebozorgi F.H., Alizadeh M., Jassbi A.R. Ethnopharmacological studies, chemical composition, antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of essential oils of eleven Salvia in Iran. J Herb Med. 2019; 17-18.
  15. Ghavam M., Manca M.L., Manconi M., Bacchetta G. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from leaves and flowers of Salvia hydrangea DC. ex Benth. Sci Rep. 2020; 10(1): 1-10.
  16. British Pharmacopoeia. Appendix X.I. Vol. 2, London, HMSO. 2007.
  17. Adams R.P. Identification of Essential Oil Components by Gas Chromatography/mass Spectrometry, Allured Pub Corp. 2007.
  18. Davies N.W. Gas chromatographic retention indices of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes on methyl silicon and Carbowax 20M phases. Chromatogr J. 1998; 503: 1-24.
  19. Shibamoto T. Retention indices in essential oil analysis. In Capillary Gas Chromatography in Essential Oil Analysis, Sandra P, Bichi C (eds). Alfred Heuthig: New York. 1987.
  20. Abu-Darwish M.S., Cabral C., Ferreira I.V., Gonçalves M.J., Cavaleiro C., Cruz M.T., Al-Bdour TH., Salgueiro L. Essential oil of common sage (Salvia officinalis L.) from Jordan: assessment of safety in mammalian cells and its antifungal and anti-inflammatory potential. Biomed Res Int. 2013; 1–9.
  21. Raina A.P., Negi K., Dutta M. Variability in essential oil composition of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) grown under North-Western Himalayan Region of India. Med Plants Res J. 2013; 7: 683–688.
  22. Ben Khedher M.R., Ben Khedher S., Chaieb I., Tounsi S., Hammami M. Chemical composition and biological activities of Salvia officinalis essential oil from Tunisia. Exp Clin Med J. 2017; 16:160-173.
  23. Kammoun E.l. Euch S., Hassine D.B., Cazaux S., Bouzouita N., Bouajila J. Salvia officinalis essential oil: Chemical analysis and evaluation of antienzymatic and antioxidant bioactivitie. S AFR J BOT. 2019; 120: 253–260.
  24. Barra A. Factors affecting chemical variability of essential oils: A Review of recent developments. Nat Prod Commun. 2009; 4(8): 1147-1154.
  25. Nematollahi A., Mirjalili M.H., Hadian J., Yousefzadi M. Chemical diversity among the essential oils of natural Salvia mirzayanii (Lamiaceae) populations from Iran. J Plant Pro Tech. 2017; 9(1): 1-16. (In Persian)
  26. Anačkov G., Božin B., Zorić L., Vukov D., Mimica-Dukić N., Merkulov L., Igić R., Jovanović M., Boža P. Chemical composition of essential oil and leaf anatomy of Salvia bertolonii Vis. and Salvia pratensis L. (Sect. Plethiosphace, Lamiaceae). Molecules. 2009; 14: 1-9.
  27. Fernández-Sestelo M., Carrillo J.M. Environmental effects on yield and composition of essential oil in wild populations of Spike Lavender (Lavandula latifolia Medik.). Agriculture. 2020; 10(12): 626.
  28. Russo A., Formisano C., Rigano D., Senatore F., Delfine S., Cardile V., Rosselli S, Bruno M. Chemical composition and anticancer activity of essential oils of Mediterranean sage (Salvia officinalis L.) grown in different environmental conditions. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013; 55: 42–47.
  29. Heydari Z., Yavari A., Jafari L. Mumivand H. Study on the chemical diversity of essential oil from different plant parts of Salvia sharifii Rech. f. & Esfand. Iran J Med Arom Plant. 2020; 36(4): 627-641. (In Persian)
  30. Mahajan M., Kuiry R., Pal P. Understanding the consequence of environmental stress for accumulation of secondary metabolites in medicinal and aromatic plants. J Appl Res Med Aromat Plants. 2020; 18: 100255.
  31. Chauhan A., Venkatesha K.T., Padalia R.C., Singh V.R., Verma R.S., Chanotiya C.S. Essential oil composition of leaves and inflorescences of Elsholtzia densa Benth. from western Himalaya. Essent Oil Res J. 2018; 21: 1-6.
  32. Xu Z., Ji A., Zhang X., Song J., Chen S. Biosynthesis and regulation of active compounds in medicinal model plant Salvia miltiorrhiza. Chin Herb Med. 2016; 8(1): 3-11.
  33. Sangwan N.S., Farooqi A.H.A., Shabih F., Sangwan R.S. Regulation of essential oil production in plants. J Plant Growth Regul. 2001; 34: 3-21.
  34. Porres-Martinez M., Gonzalez-Burgos E., Carretero M.E., Gomez-Serranillos M.P. Influence of phenological stage on chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Salvia lavandulifolia Vahl. essential oils. Ind Crops Prod. 2014; 53: 71–77.
  35. Zare S., Jassbi A.M. Using chemical classification of the essential oils to differentiate Salvia sharifii from S. macrosiphon. J Essent Oil-Bear Plants. 2014; 17(6): 1356-1360.
  36. Raguso R.A. More lessons from linalool: insights gained from a ubiquitous floral volatile. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2016; 32: 31-36.
  37. Nakamura A., Fujiwara S., Matsumoto I., Abe K. Stress repression in restrained rats by (R)-(-)-linalool inhalation and gene expression profiling of their whole blood cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2009; 57: 5480-5485.
  38. Aprotosoaie A.C., Hăncianu M., Costache I.I., Miron A. Linalool: a review on a key odorant molecule with valuable biological properties. Flavour Fragr J. 2014; 29(4): 193-219.
  39. Gupta R.C., Doss R.B., Srivastava A., Lall R., Sinha A. Nutraceuticals for Control of Ticks, Fleas, and Other Ectoparasites: 625-633. In: Gupta, R.C., Srivastava, A. and Lall, R., (Eds.). Nutraceuticals in Veterinary Medicine. 2019.