Document Type : Research Paper
Department of Horticultural Science and Agronomy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Medicinal Plants Research Center, Institute of Medicinal Plants, ACECR, Karaj, Iran
Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran
Caper (Capparis spinose L.) from Capparaceae is a multipurpose plant that is well adapted to semi-arid and nutrient-poor soils. This research was conducted to investigate the oil content and fatty acids composition in some populations of Iranian caper seeds. According to the results, the seed oil content ranged from 31.59 to 35 % in different caper populations. The highest unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) content of approximately 91.25% and saturated fatty acid (SFA) with 11.14% was related to Germi (GE), and Kelid Daghi (KD) population, respectively. The highest content of linoleic acid and oleic acid was observed in populations of Dasht Moghan (53.33%) and Mahalat (46.57%). A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed with the main fatty acids. The first component (PC1) was contributed by the content of linoleic acid, oleic acid, linolenic acid, palmitoleic acid, margaric acid, and stearic acid content. Cluster analysis based on all biochemical properties showed three separated clusters including (1) Damavand (DA), Booinzahra (BO) and Kelid Daghi (KD), (2) Germi (GE) population, and (3) Mahalat (MA), Tafresh (TA) and Delijan (DL). Furthermore, clusters of (1) DA and TA, (2) KD and GE, and (3) BO, MA, and DL were found based on climatic characteristics. The fatty acid profile of C. spinosa seed oil highlights its potential as a future alternative for the edible oilseed, especially in subtropical regions.