Smallholder Farmers Technical Efficiency and Production Constraints in Turmeric Production: in South-western Ethiopia

Document Type : Research Paper


Mizan-Tepi University, Mizan Teferi, Ethiopia, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Department of Agricultural Economics


The primary goal of the research was to quantify the technical efficiency and to identify its causes in the production of turmeric production in Sheko and Yeki districts. Three hundred sixty sample household heads were chosen using a two-stage random sampling procedure. Descriptive statistics and econometrics models like, Cobb-Douglas and Tobit's models were used to examine efficiency and determination respectively. As a result, the average technical efficiency was 73.72. The average technical efficiency suggests that it is possible to raise turmeric production by 26.28 percent without utilizing additional inputs. Land, labor, oxen, seeds, herbicide, and urea all had a big impact on how much turmeric was produced. The Tobit model revealed that gender, age, household size, the number of plots, and market information substantially impacted technical efficiency. Policies aimed at motivating and strengthening the existing agricultural extension system, and providing appropriate marketing information, are required to improve turmeric growers' production efficiency.


Main Subjects

  1. The Ethiopian Agricultural Transformation Institute ( ATI ). Published online. 2022;39.
  2. Abate T.M., Dessie A.B., Mekie T.M. Technical efficiency of smallholder farmers in red pepper production in North Gondar zone Amhara regional state, Ethiopia. J Econ Struct. 2019;8(1):1-18.
  3. Mohammed A., Baze M., Ahmed M. Smallholder Commercialization and Commercial Farming in Coffee-Spice Based Farming System of South West Ethiopia. 2016;2(5):13-26.
  4. Shimelis T. Spices production and marketing in Ethiopia : A review Spices production and marketing in Ethiopia : A. Cogent Food Agric. 2021;7(1). doi:10.1080/23311932.2021.1915558
  5. Güneri N. REVIEW A review on turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) and usage in seafood. 2021;10:71-84. doi:10.33714/masteb.771756
  6. Tesfa T., Bayu W., Gashaw A., Beshir H. Spice production, marketing, and utilization in South Wollo, Ethiopia. East African J Sci. 2017;11(1):27-36.
  7. Addisu A. Spice, herbs, and aromatic plants subsector platform. In: First Ethiopian Spice Platform Stakeholders Meeting. ; 2014. doi:10.18805
  8. Tesema T. Heliyon Are farmers technically efficient in growing sorghum crops ?: Evidence from the western part of Ethiopia Gudeya Bila district. Heliyon. 2022;8(December 2021):e09907. doi:10.1016/j.heliyon.2022.e09907
  9. Zinabu Tesfaw LZ& BT. Technical efficiency of Teff producer farmers in Technical efficiency of Teff producer farmers in Raya Kobo district, Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia. Cogent Food Agric. Published online 2021. doi:10.1080/23311932.2020.1865594
  10. Borko M.P., Ameda T.T., Hutton J. Technical Efficiency of Maize Production in MeskanWoreda of Gurage Zone Technical Efficiency of Maize Production in MeskanWoreda of Gurage Zone. 2021;(February). doi:10.14662/IJEBM2020.125
  11. Dagar V., Kamran M., Alvarado R., et al. Variations in technical efficiency of farmers with distinct land size across agro-climatic zones : Evidence from India. J Clean Prod. 2021;315(June):128109. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2021.128109
  12. Economics A. Economic Efficiency of Smallholder Farmers in Rice Production : The Case of Guraferda Woreda, Southern Nations Nationalities People’s Region, 2019;8(2):151-167.
  13. Journals Q. Analysis of Technical Efficiency of Coffee Producers in Chire Woreda of Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia: A Stochastic Frontier Approach. 2021;9(3):33-39.
  14. Lema T.Z., Masresha S.E., Mengsitie M., Demeke E.M. Analysis of the technical efficiency of barley production in North Shewa Zone of Amhara regional state, Ethiopia Analysis of the technical efficiency of barley production in North Shewa Zone of Amhara regional state, Ethiopia. Cogent Econ Financ. 2022;10(1). doi:10.1080/23322039.2022.2043509
  15. Khatiwada D. Technical Efficiency of Ginger Production in Ilam District of Nepal : A Stochastic Production Frontier Approach. 2022;2022.
  16. Ayele A., Tarekegn K. Comparative Analysis of technical efficiency of wheat production in row planting and broadcasting methods : Empirical evidence from southern Ethiopia. African J Sci Technol Innov Dev. 2021;0(0):1-10. doi:10.1080/20421338.2021.1890899
  17. Alemu G., Angasu B., Sime N. Economic Efficiency of Smallholder Farmers in Maize Production in West Harerghe Zone, Oromia National Regional State, Ethiopia. 2022;11(2):98-104. doi:10.11648/j.jwer.20221102.14
  18. Lovell CAK. PRODUCTIVE EFFICIENCY. Oxford University Press; 1993.
  19. Mohammed A., Baze M., Ahmed M. Smallholder Commercialization and Commercial Farming in Coffee-Spice Based Farming System of South West Ethiopia. Int J Res Stud Agric Sci. 2016;2(5):13-26. doi:10.20431/2454-6224.0205003
  20. Md A.B., Anton A.K., Mohammad AH. Modeling technical inefficiencies effects in a stochastic frontier production function for panel data. African J Agric Res. 2009;4(12):1374-1382.
  21. Aigner D., Lovell C.A.K., Schmidt P. Formulation and estimation of stochastic frontier production function models. J Econom. 1977;6(1):21-37.
  22. Sarker D., De S. High technical efficiency of farms in two different agricultural lands: A study under deterministic production frontier approach. Indian J Agric Econ. 2004;59(902-2016-68043).
  23. Coelli T. A multi-stage methodology for the solution of orientated DEA models. Oper Res Lett. 1998;23(3-5):143-149.
  24. Mussa E.C. Economic efficiency of smallholder major crop production in the central highlands of Ethiopia. Published online 2011.
  26. Belete A.S. Analysis of technical efficiency in maize production in Guji Zone : stochastic frontier model. Agric Food Secur. Published online 2020:1-15. doi:10.1186/s40066-020-00270-w
  27. CSA. Ethiopia Rural Socioeconomic Survey ( ERSS ) Survey Report.; 2013.
  28. Prabudoss V., Samuthra M., Jawahar S. Constraints Faced By Turmeric Farmers In Namakkal District Of Tamil Nadu. 2020;9(03):6348-6350.
  30. Gbigbi T.M. Technical efficiency and artisanal fishing households: Any hope in oil extracting locations? Evidence from Nigeria. Ege J Fish Aquat Sci. 2019;36(3):219-228.
  31. Hasan M.F. Economic efficiency and constraints of maize production in the northern region of Bangladesh. J innov dev Strateg. 2008;2(1):18-32.
  32. Baloyi R.T. Technical efficiency in maize production by small-scale farmers in Ga-Mothiba, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Published online 2011.
  33. Begum M.E.A., Miah M.A.M., Rashid M.A., Islam M.T., Hossain M.I. Economic analysis of turmeric cultivation: evidence from Khagrachari district. Bangladesh J Agric Res. 2019;44(1):43-58.
  34. Philipos M. Management Technical Efficiency of Maize Production in MeskanWoreda of Gurage Zone. 2021;9(January):1-13. doi:10.14662/IJEBM2020.125
  35. Asfaw D.M., Ali A.K. Review on Economic Efficiency of Vegetable Production in Ethiopia. 2022;3(1):16-24. doi:10.11648/j.advances.20220301.14
  36. Tenaye A. economies Technical E ffi ciency of Smallholder Agriculture in Developing Countries : The Case of Ethiopia. 2020;(Fao 2016):1-27.
  37. Zewdie M.C., Moretti M., Tenessa D.B., et al. Agricultural Technical Efficiency of Smallholder Farmers in Ethiopia : A Stochastic Frontier Approach. Published online 2021:1-17.
  38. Bati M., Mulugeta Tilahun D., Parabathina R.K. Economic efficiency in maize production in Ilu Ababor zone, Ethiopia. Res J Agric For Sci SSN. 2017;5(12):8.
  39. Weldegiorgis L.G. Efficiency of male and female as irrigated onion growers. 2019;(January). doi:10.1080/19315260.2019.1565794
  40. Mulatu M.A.B. Determinant of Turmeric Producers Market Outlet Choice in Sheka and Majang Zones of South West Ethiopia. 2019;09:31033-31038.