Optimization of In vitro Propagation of Qare-Qat (Vaccinium arctostaphylus)


1 Department of Molecular Physiology, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran (ABRII), P.O. Box 31535-1897, Karaj, Iran

2 Department of Tissue Culture and Gene Transformation, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran, Karaj, Iran

3 Department of Horticulture, Agriculture and Natural Resources Faculty, Islamic Azad University-Karaj Branch, Karaj, Iran


In order to optimize the micropropagation of Qare-Qat (Vaccinium arctostaphylus J.J.Sm), samples were collected from two regions of Iran (Asalem and Kelardasht). Anderson (AN) media containing different concentrations of zeatin (0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mg L-1) and different levels of pH (4.5, 5 and 5.5) were compared. The in vitro shoots were transferred on AN media supplemented with zeatin (1 and 2 mg L-1) alone or in combination with Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) (0.2 and 0.4 mg L-1). To optimize the rooting stage, elongated shoots (1.5- 2cm) were cultured on half strength semi- solid media containing activated charcoal (0 and 7 g L-1),or half strength liquid AN medium supplemented with different concentrations of IBA (0, 0.5, 2 and 3 mg L-1) and NAA (0 and 0.5 mg L-1). The results indicated that at the establishment stage AN media supplemented with 4 mg L-1 zeatin (pH= 5.5) and 1 mg L-1 zeatin (pH= 5) were the best treatment for Asalem and Kelardasht explants, respectively. For the Asalem explants, the highest number of proliferated shoots (4) was observed on AN media consisting of 2 mg L-1 zeatin and 0.4 mg L-1 IBA. Whereas for the Kelardash explants  the highest number of proliferated shoots (3) was observed on AN media consisting of 2 mg L-1 zeatin and 0.2 mg L-1 IBA. The highest percent of root formation (86 and 66%) were observed in half strength AN medium containing of 7 g L-1 activated charcoal and 3 mg L-1 IBA and 0.5 mg L-1 NAA in Asalem and Kelardasht explants, respectively. The plantlets were successfully transferred to soil and the survival rate was 85%.


1. Hasanloo T, Sepehrifar R, Hajimehdipoor H. Levels of phenolic compounds and their effects on antioxidant capacity of wild Vaccinium arctostaphylus L. (Qare- Qat) collected from different regions of Iran. Turk J Biol.2011; 35: 371-377.
2. Sedaghathoor SH, Kashi AK, Talae AR, Khalighi A. Essential oils of Qare-Qat (Vaccinium arctostaphylus) shoots and chemical composition of berries. Int J Agr Biol. 2006;1:45-46.
3. Meiners J, Schwab M, Szankowski I. Efficient in vitro regeneration systems for Vaccinium species. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult. 2007;89:169-176.
4. Marcotrigiano M, McGlew SP. A two-stage micropropagation system for cranberries. J Am Soc Hortic Sci. 1991;116:911-916.
5. Debnath SC, McRae KB. A one-step in vitro cloning procedure for cranberry (Vaccinium acrocarpon Ait.): the influence of cytokinins on shoot proliferations and rooting. Small Fruits Rev. 2005;4:57-75.
6. Reed BM, Abdelnour-Esquivel A. The use of zeatin to initiate in vitro cultures of Vaccinium species and cultivars. Hort Sci. 1991; 26: 1320-1322.
7. Eccher T, Noe N. Comparison between 2iP and zeatin in the micropropagation of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum). ISHS Acta Hortic. 1989;241:185-190.
8. Morrison S, Smagula JM. Morphology, growth, and rhizome development of Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. seedlings, rooted softwood cuttings, and micropropagated planted. Hort Sci. 2000;35:738-741.
9. Mohajeri Naraghi S, Mardi M, Hasanloo T, Pirseyedi SM, Mahmoodi P. Isolation and characterization of novel microsatellite loci in Vaccinium arctostaphylus L. Conservation Genetics Resources. 2011;3:441- 444.
10. Ostrolucká MG, Gadšová A, Ondrušková E, Libiaková G, Lateekov M. Effect of medium pH on axillary shoot proliferation of selected Vaccinium vitis-idaea cultivars. Acta Biologica Cracoviensia Series Botanica. 2010;52:92-96.
11. Borkowska B. Wymagania roślin borَwki wysokiej pochodzacych z in vitro. Ogrodnictwo. 1996;2: 17– 18.
12. Debnath SC. Micropropagation of small fruits. In: Jain SM, and Ishii K [eds.], Micropropagation of Woody Trees and Fruits. Kluwer Academic Publishers Dordrecht. 2003;456-506.
13. Debnath SC. In vitro culture of lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifoliumait). Small Fruits. Rev. 2004;3:393- 408.
14. Debnath SC. Effects of carbon source and concentration on development of lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) shoots cultivated in vitro from nodal explants. In vitro Cellular and Developmental Biol. 2005;41:145-150.
15. Jaakola L, Tolvanen A, Laine K, Hohtola A. Effect of N6-isopentenyladenine concentration on growth initiation in vitro and rooting of bilberry and lingonberry microshoots. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult. 2001;66:73-77.
16. Qu L, Polashock J, Vorsa N. A highly efficient in vitro cranberry regeneration system using leaf explants. Hort Sci. 2000; 35:948-952.
17. Ružić D, Vujović T, Libiakova G, Cerović R, Gajdošova A. Micropropagation in vitro of high bush bluebeery (Vaccinium corymbosum). Iss J berry research. 2012; 2: 97- 103.
18. Debnath SC, McRae KB. In vitro culture of lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.): The influence of cytokinins and media types on propagation. Small Fruits Rev. 2001;1:3-19.
19. Phulwaria M, Ram K, Harish, GuptaAK, Shekhawat NS. Micropropagation of mature Terminalia catappa (Indian Almond), a medicinally important forest tree. J Forest Res. 2012;17:202-207.
20. Ostrolucká MG, Libiaková G, Ondrusková A, Gajdosová A. In vitro propagation of Vaccinium species. Acta Univ Latv. 2004;676:207-212.
21.Ostrolucká MG, Gajdošová A, Ondrušková E,Libiaková G. In vitro propagation of several Vaccinium corymbosum L. and Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. cultivars. Issue of the International Scientific Conference and NJF seminar. 2009; 12: 75-80.
22. Guang-jie Z, Zhan-bin W, Dan W. In vitro propagation and ex vitro rooting of blueberry plantlets. Plant Tiss Cult and Biotech. 2008;18:187-195.