Document Type : Research Paper
Faculty of Natural Sciences, Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran
Research Institutes of Forests and Rangelands, Department of Biotechnology, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Division, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. belongs to the family Lamiaceae, a perennial herbaceous medicinal plant that is native to Iran and is considered an endangered species. In-vitro plantlets (seven populations) were raised in MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/l BAP and 0.01 mg/l NAA and the rooted plantlets were acclimatized successfully under greenhouse conditions. In- vivo plants (eight populations) were propagated under greenhouse condition. The essential oils were isolated by hydro distillation and identification of chemical compounds was done by a combination of capillary GC and GC-MS instruments. Twenty-five and forty compounds were identified in the different populations of in-vitro plantlet and in-vivo plant constituting 85.8%-99.68% and 85.1%-95.06% of essential oils, respectively. The major components of in-vitro plantlet on different populations were Verbenone (2.5%-82.47%), Geranyl acetate (28.35%-62.07%), Methyl geranate (0.98%-79.06%), Neral (0.64%-3.13%), Geranial (4.93%-14.39%), Limonene (0.37%-10.36%) and E-Anethole (7.62%-20.71%). The composition of essential oil from greenhouse plant populations were dominated by Neral (11.24%-74.80%), Limonene (0.17%-25.26%), Geraniol (0.54%-40.81%), Geranial (0.04%-9.15%), Methyl geranate (0.16%-28.48%), E-Anethole (0 %-0.1%) and Verbenone (0.39%-23.96%). The highest values of Neral, Limonene and Geraniol percentage were obtained from greenhouse conditions. In contrast, the maximum values of Verbenone, Geranyl acetate, Methyl geranate, Geranial, and E-Anethole were observed in the essential oils of in-vitro plantlets. This study demonstrated difference of chemical composition between in-vitro plantlets and greenhouse plants of different populations on D. kotschyi species. Also, new chemotypes of D. kotschyi has been introduced for further research.